Author: ExoNews Editor

Duke Brickhouse is a former trial lawyer and entertainment attorney who has refocused his life’s work to exposing the truth of our subjugated planet and to help raise humanity’s collective consciousness at this crucial moment in our planet’s history, in order to break out of the dark and negative false reality that is preventing the natural development of our species, to put our planet on a path of love, light and harmony in preparation for our species’ ascension to a fourth density, and to ultimately take our rightful place in the galactic community.

Galaxy Simulations Offer a New Solution to the Fermi Paradox

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by Rebecca Boyle                March 7, 2019                   (quantamagazine.org)

• The universe is filled with stars, nearly all those stars have planets, and some of those planets are surely livable. So where is everybody? This is the ongoing conundrum that is the Fermi Paradox, first presented by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi in 1950.

• In 1981, Carl Sagan and William Newman speculated that the answer to the paradox was that intelligent people were simply too far away from us to come here. But they may do so in time. Others reason that tech-savvy civilizations are rare and prone to self-destruction, or are avoiding the Earth on purpose. In 1975, the astrophysicist Michael Hart declared there simply are no other intelligence civilizations in the universe (a hypothesis recently revived by Oxford researcher, Anders Samberg).

• Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, an astronomer at the University of Rochester, has led another study, now under review by The Astrophysical Journal. Carroll-Nellenback says that it wouldn’t take very long for a space-faring civilization to spread across the galaxy because the movement of stars throughout the galaxy would “… spread life on time scales much shorter than the age of the galaxy” and help distribute life. “The sun has been around the center of the Milky Way 50 times.” According to simulations by Carroll-Nellenback and his colleagues Jason Wright, Adam Frank, and Caleb Scharf, natural variability will mean that sometimes galaxies will be settled, but often not — solving Fermi’s quandary.

• But the fact that no interstellar visitors are here now does not mean they do not exist, the study’s authors say. Civilizations do not last forever. Not every star is a destination, and not every planet is habitable. There’s also what Frank calls “the Aurora effect,” in which settlers arrive at a habitable planet on which they nonetheless cannot survive. When Carroll-Nellenback and his coauthors included these impediments in their model and ran simulations with different star densities, seed civilizations, spacecraft velocities and other variations, they found a vast middle ground between a silent, empty galaxy and one teeming with life. It’s possible that the Milky Way is partially settled, or intermittently so.

• Frank and Wright say that now we need to look for alien signals, which will be possible as more sophisticated telescopes open their eyes to the panoply of exoplanets and begin glimpsing their atmospheres. “We are entering an era when we are going to have actual data relevant to life on other planets,” Frank said. “This couldn’t be more relevant than in the moment we live.”

[Editor’s Note]   The wrangling over Fermi’s Paradox continues among mainstream scientists who are groping for an answer to a flawed premise. When you take the premise that no interstellar beings have ever visited the Earth as “Fact A”, there’s nowhere to go. It becomes a perpetual debate on why there are no beings here besides us. But this is a falsehood from the start. Of course there are extraterrestrial beings all around us. We have real evidence that they have been here for thousands of years, and anecdotal evidence that they have been here for hundreds of millions or even a couple of billion years. This galaxy and the universe are teeming with intelligent life. All of the 52 star systems in our local star cluster have human-like civilizations very similar to our own. We are apparently the last to join this community. It is our time. The problem is that the powers that be, which control the Deep State government and the mainstream science community, have made it a priority to keep Earth humans completely ignorant and unaware of our true reality, often through silly “scientific studies” such as this one.

 

As far as anyone knows, we have always been alone. It’s just us on this pale blue dot, “home to everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of,” as Carl Sagan so memorably put it. No one has called or dropped by. And yet the universe is filled with stars, nearly all those stars have planets, and some of those planets are surely livable. So where is everybody?

The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi was purportedly the first to pose this question, in 1950, and scientists have offered a bounty of solutions for his eponymous paradox since. One of the most famous came from Sagan himself, with William Newman, who postulated in a 1981 paperthat we just need patience. Nobody has visited because they’re all too far away; it takes time to evolve a species intelligent enough to invent interstellar travel, and time for that species to spread across so many worlds. Nobody is here yet.

Other researchers have argued that extraterrestrial life might rarely become space-faring (just as only one species on Earth ever has). Some argue that tech-savvy species, when they arise, quickly self-destruct. Still others suggest aliens may have visited in the past, or that they’re avoiding us on purpose, having grown intelligent enough to be suspicious of everyone else. Perhaps the most pessimistic answer is a foundational paper from 1975, in which the astrophysicist Michael Hart declared that the only plausible reason nobody has visited is that there really is nobody out there.

Now comes a paper that rebuts Sagan and Newman, as well as Hart, and offers a new solution to the Fermi paradox that avoids speculation about alien psychology or anthropology.

The research, which is under review by The Astrophysical Journal, suggests it wouldn’t take as long as Sagan and Newman thought for a space-faring civilization to planet-hop across the galaxy, because the movements of stars can help distribute life. “The sun has been around the center of the Milky Way 50 times,” said Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, an astronomer at the University of Rochester, who led the study. “Stellar motions alone would get you the spread of life on time scales much shorter than the age of the galaxy.” Still, although galaxies can become fully settled fairly quickly, the fact of our loneliness is not necessarily paradoxical: According to simulations by Carroll-Nellenback and his colleagues, natural variability will mean that sometimes galaxies will be settled, but often not — solving Fermi’s quandary.

The question of how easy it would be to settle the galaxy has played a central role in attempts to resolve the Fermi paradox. Hart and others calculated that a single space-faring species could populate the galaxy within a few million years, and maybe even as quickly as 650,000 years. Their absence, given the relative ease with which they should spread, means they must not exist, according to Hart.

Sagan and Newman argued it would take longer, in part because long-lived civilizations are likelier to grow more slowly. Faster-growing, rapacious societies might peter out before they could touch all the stars. So maybe there have been a lot of short-lived, fast-growing societies that wink out, or a few long-lived, slowly expanding societies that just haven’t arrived yet, as Jason Wright of Pennsylvania State University, a coauthor of the new study, summarized Sagan and Newman’s argument. But Wright doesn’t agree with either solution.

“That conflates the expansion of the species as a whole with the sustainability of individual settlements,” he said. “Even if it is true for one species, it is not going to be this iron-clad law of xenosociology where if they are expanding, they are necessarily short-lived.” After all, he noted, life on Earth is robust, “and it expands really fast.”

In their new paper, Carroll-Nellenback, Wright and their collaborators Adam Frank of Rochester and Caleb Scharf of Columbia University sought to examine the paradox without making untestable assumptions. They modeled the spread of a “settlement front” across the galaxy, and found that its speed would be strongly affected by the motions of stars, which previous work — including Sagan and Newman’s — treated as static objects. The settlement front could cross the entire galaxy based just on the motions of stars, regardless of the power of propulsion systems. “There is lots of time for exponential growth basically leading to every system being settled,” Carroll-Nellenback said.

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If the Space Force Won’t Fight Aliens, Who the Hell Will?

by Kyle Mizokami                   March 6, 2019                    (foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com)

• During a recent Pentagon roundtable, military news site Task & Purpose’s Pentagon reporter Jeff Schogol asked if the Space Force “is concerned about threats posed by extraterrestrial intelligence.” The official answer he got back? “No.” But if an alien invasion did take place, which arm of the Pentagon would respond? The answer: probably all of them.

• Ironically, the service that would most likely take the lead is the US Navy. The US Navy is unique among the services in planning voyages, as would an alien spacecraft. From an operational and technical standpoint, aliens and sailors have a few things in common. Also, seventy-one percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. If aliens operated from the water, the Navy has manned aircraft, surface ships, and submarines above, on, and below the surface of the ocean. The Navy could also sail to the most remote locations in the world’s oceans to investigate and monitor for enemy activity.

• By contrast, the Air Force’s fighters and bombers could only remain engaged for a short time before returning to base. Such a force will be less useful against an alien capable of traveling extraordinary distances in a blink of an eye. In the meantime the Space Force, nestled under control of the Air Force, would contribute to the alien war by maintaining the U.S. military’s network of position, navigation, and timing/GPS satellites, communication satellites, and other space-based assets.

• If aliens attempted a landing in the United States, or attack one of our allies, the US Army’s ten combat divisions would spring into action, attempting to destroy the aliens with fire and maneuver. The Marines could also get in on the alien fighting, particularly overseas in Asia, Europe, or even the Middle East.

• Of course, all of this is contingent on the U.S. military being on par with alien technology… which, frankly, is extremely unlikely. Any species capable of interstellar flight is far more technologically advanced. Even a difference of a thousand years would be ample enough to ensure humanity’s defeat. If aliens do exist, our destruction at their hands would be nearly inevitable. In the end, maybe it doesn’t matter if the Pentagon has a plan to fight aliens after all.

[Editor’s Note] Well they have it right that the US Navy, not the Deep State Air Force, would be at the forefront of defending the planet against an alien attack. The US Navy has a far more advanced and formidable secret space fleet that deployed in the early 1980’s, called Solar Warden. The Air Force is more of a Coast Guard, controlling our terrestrial communications systems. The Marines are still a part of the Solar Warden Navy group. And the Army seems to be only terrestrial. But the negative extraterrestrials are here and have been here quite a while. So destruction of the planet is not what they have in mind. They prefer to keep us working for them as mind-controlled slaves, until we wake up, rise up, and claim our sovereignty.

 

Late last week, military news site Task & Purpose confirmed a disturbing fact: the newly created U.S. Space Force has no intention of fighting aliens. Despite the recent uptick of military UFO sightings, the Pentagon appears uninterested (at least officially) in the possibility of hostile aliens. But if an alien invasion does take place, which arm of the Pentagon would respond? The answer: probably all of them.

During a recent Pentagon roundtable, Task & Purpose’s Pentagon reporter Jeff Schogol asked if the Space Force “is concerned about threats posed by extraterrestrial intelligence.” The official answer he got back? “No.”

Schogol’s question was asked with tongue firmly planted in cheek, but the revelation last year that U.S. Navy fighter jets encountered alleged UFO craft in 2004 and again in 2015—in both instances appearing on radar and leaving behind video evidence—makes one wonder.

If the unidentified flying objects described by Navy pilots, as well as military and civilian personnel for the past seventy years, are really of extraterrestrial origin and unfriendly, how would the Pentagon deal with them?

If UFOs suddenly descended from the skies, toasting the Statue of Liberty, the Great Mall of America, and the Golden Gate Bridge with death rays, the Pentagon would need to convene some sort of study group to quickly determine what kind of threat it was dealing with. If that happens, forget the Air Force.

Ironically, the service that would most likely take the lead is the U.S. Navy.

Why the Navy? Aliens would likely come from vast distances, traveling light years in long distance voyages, to smash puny humans. The U.S. Navy is unique among the services in planning similar, though much, much shorter voyages. Both submarines and UFOs deal with pressure—in the case of submarines the pressure is on the outside, while in space the pressure is on the inside of the vehicle. From an operational and technical standpoint, aliens and sailors have a few things in common.

There are other reasons the Navy might take the lead. Seventy-one percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, and if aliens operated from the water (remember, the 2004 sighting included reports of a 737-sized object on the surface of the ocean) the Navy is unique in having manned aircraft, surface ships, and submarines prowling above, on, and below the surface of the ocean. The Navy could also sail to the most remote locations in the world’s oceans, establishing a military presence for weeks or months, to investigate and monitor for enemy activity.

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Alien Civilizations Might Be So Advanced That They Might Use Black Holes To Power Their Spaceships

by Erin VanDyke                 March 10, 2019                 (canadianhomesteading.ca)

• In a 1975 novel, Imperial Earth, science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke first put forward the idea of advanced alien civilizations utilizing a black hole-powered spacecraft. Charles Sheffield presented a similar idea in his 1978 short story, “Killing Vector”.

• Ten years ago, Kansas State University mathematician Dr Louis Crane, and physics grad student Shawn Westmoreland, co-authored a paper entitled, “Are Black Hole Spacecraft Possible?” which explored the possibility of using the Hawking radiation emitted by an artificial black hole.

• Dr Crane has now authored a new study entitled “Searching for Extraterrestrial Civilizations Using Gamma-Ray Telescopes” suggesting that spacecraft could be powered by the Hawking radiation from a tiny artificial black hole found by using gamma telescopes, which can also aid in the search for alien civilizations.

 

Scientists are always challenged to think outside the box, but when it came to looking for possible signs of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (ETI), it was even harder. One conclusion that scientists came upon was that many alien civilizations would be more technologically advanced than humanity since they might be older than us. People (who are) part of the Search for the Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have to consider that the extraterrestrials might be more advanced.

One radical idea would be that spacefaring alien civilizations could harness radiation emitted from black holes (Hawking radiation) to generate the power they need for their spacecraft. Louis Crane decided to build on this, and as a mathematician at Kansas State University (KSU), the researcher recently authored a study that suggests evidence of spacecraft powered by tiny artificial black holes could be found by using gamma telescopes.

“Searching for Extraterrestrial Civilizations Using Gamma-Ray Telescopes,” as the new study was called, is now available online. Dr. Crane had published another paper before on the subject which was co-authored by a physics grad student with KSU, Shawn Westmoreland, titled “Are Black Hole Spacecraft Possible?” and published ten years ago.

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