How Elon Musk and the US Could Establish a Martian Government

Article by Adam Smith                                    December 24, 2020                                      (

• NASA has announced plans for the Artemis Moon mission to establish a lunar base in 2024, followed shortly thereafter by actual inhabitants. And NASA anticipates a manned mission to Mars by 2033. On the other hand, Elon Musk, the CEO of SpaceX, plans to send the first SpaceX craft to Mars by 2022, with humans following within the next four to six years. Musk envisions people living in glass domes as they terraform Mars to support life.

• Musk and SpaceX are already laying the groundwork for a Mars colony. A section of the company’s ‘Starlink’ satellite internet service user agreement states: “For services provided on Mars, or in transit to Mars via Starship or other colonization spacecraft, the parties recognize Mars as a free planet and that no Earth-based government has authority or sovereignty over Martian activities. …Accordingly, disputes will be settled through self-governing principles, established in good faith, at the time of Martian settlement.”

• Is this a joke, or is it the beginning of a Mars constitution based on existing legislation? Current law resides in the 2020 Artemis Accords and the 1957 Outer Space Treaty. A section that reads: “Outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means,” is meant to prevent outright “land grabs” by Earth nations. Lawyer Randy Segal points out that, “The whole of space law contemplates that those of us on this planet share the rights and responsibility to make space something we can all share together.” Segal suggests that Musk could be trying to lay some groundwork for offering up an independent constitution, just like he did for electric cars and reusable launch vehicles. Does it have any legal precedent or enforceability? No. But it could start a conversation about how legislators should go about planning for a Mars constitution.

• In 2016, Musk said his intentions for a Martian government would be a direct democracy, where people vote on the issues themselves rather than through politicians. “[I]t would be people voting directly on issues,” said Musk. “[T]he potential for corruption is substantially diminished in a direct versus a representative democracy.”

• Noting that SpaceX’s goal is to send hundreds of thousands of people to Mars until they have established a truly sustainable colony, SpaceX General Council, David Anderman, expects to “impose our own legal regime” on Mars within our lifetime and “faster than you think.” But it will be “interesting to see how it plays out with terrestrial governments exerting control,” says Anderman.

• Legally, Musk has more of a chance of creating a community rather than an independent colony. A ‘community’ would operate under the governance of the United States. It could be that, in the future, legislators will see the need for a constitution that governs the entirety of Mars, rather than having laws split into geographical jurisdictions. Experts suggest that that the most beneficial Martian government will be one that is eventually decided on Mars itself.

• Professor Von der Dunk, a space law expert at Nebraska College of Law, thinks that it is prudent to determine how legal conflicts should be addressed in space. But companies such as Space X and Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin can only go so far. While companies may set the agenda, it will ultimately be up to governments to decide whether to adopt it.

• Bezos envisions millions of people in living in bucolic Martian cities with farms and rivers and universities. But Bezos is taking an intentionally slower approach to space than Musk, and has no opinions on Martian constitutions or legislation.

• An example of how to fashion Martian laws could come from Earth’s mining communities, where Congress was happy to sanction local mining laws as long as they did not conflict with those of the United States, says space lawyer Scot Anderson. There is a human impulse to create stability through the law. An early legal framework could be applied to the entirety of Mars in a way that could not be done on Earth. Legal experts say it is likely that once the first community is established on Mars, it would seek to self-regulate fairly quickly due to the difficulties of interplanetary communication.


The moment when the first human sets foot on Mars is becoming ever-closer. The 140 million mile

                            Elon Musk

distance between Earth and the Red Planet is set to be breached within the next two decades, Nasa predicts.

Just recently, the space agency announced its plans for its Artemis moon missions – aiming to take place in 2024 – which could establish a lunar base on the Moon as a stepping-stone before the first planetary spacewalk.

For some, however, simply taking the first step on an alien planet is not looking far enough into the future. Once a community is set up on Mars, discussions will need to be had about exactly how it is governed and functions. Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX, is one of those people planning for such a future, and seems to already be setting the groundwork in the terms of service of the company’s current products.

                        Randy Segal

In the user agreement for the company’s satellite internet service Starlink, one particular paragraph stands out: “For services provided on Mars, or in transit to Mars via Starship or other colonisation spacecraft, the parties recognise Mars as a free planet and that no Earth-based government has authority or sovereignty over Martian activities,” the governing law section states.”

                       Scot Anderson

“Accordingly, disputes will be settled through self-governing principles, established in good faith, at the time of Martian settlement.”

SpaceX did not respond to multiple attempts for more information from The Independent, but experts suggest that the addition of this segment could actually have two purposes: the first is that it is a joke; the second is that it is laying groundwork for a Mars constitution – based on how permissive the existing legislation for space exploration actually is.

The section Musk has added is “a bit of tongue in cheek with his contracts… referring to this Martian constitution he’s going to be drafting,” according to Randy Segal, of the law firm Hogan Lovells. “He’s trying to include in his commercial terms… how you’re going to comply with applicable law.”

        David Anderman

The applicable law here are the 2020 Artemis accords and the 1957 Outer Space Treaty (by which signatories of the Artemis Accords say they will abide). Amongst that legislation includes the line: “Outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.” As a result, these treaties stop space exploration becoming a “land grab”, as Segal describes it.

              Frans von der Dunk

However, the regulations are, in general, “motherhood and apple pie” Segal says – an American phrase to mean something that no reasonable person could disagree with, such as the provisions of transparency, interoperability, and emergency assistance with regards to space exploration.

“The whole of space law contemplates that those of us on this planet share the rights and responsibility to make space something we can all share together,” Segal says.

“Generally, if a clause is unlawful you would read the rest of the contract to be enforceable and standing alone. He has added a section relating to Mars services (which is not being provided today, so has no effect),” but in five or 10 years “he can revise his contract.

                             Jeff Bezos

“I don’t know that a provision like this other than being humorous and anecdotally noteworthy is something that does anything to the rest of the contract at all. He could be trying to lay some groundwork for offering up an independent constitution… just like he did for electric cars and reusable launch vehicles. Does it have any precedent or enforceability? The answer I’d say is clearly no; but if you say something enough, people might come around.”

While Musk’s contracts might not be legally potent (or“gibberish”, as one professor deemed them), they are likely to start a conversation about how legislators should go about planning for a Mars constitution. This is something that SpaceX’s General council, David Anderman, is seemingly already looking into.
“Our goal is to be able to send 1,000 starships with 100 people in them every two years,” Anderman said, according to Business Insider.

“We’ll start with 100, then a couple hundred, then 100,000, then a million until we have a truly sustainable colony. It will happen in my lifetime. Faster than you think.”

He also said he expected SpaceX to “impose our own legal regime,” but that it would be “interesting to see how it plays out with terrestrial governments exerting control.” Anderman did not respond to multiple requests for comment from The Independent before publication.



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Controversy Over Israeli Scientist Claims of US Alien Agreement & Galactic Federation

On December 4, Professor Haim Eshed generated worldwide headlines when in an interview published by the Israeli national newspaper, Yedioth Aharonot, he revealed the existence of a secret US agreement with extraterrestrials, the existence of a joint US alien base on Mars, and a Galactic Federation monitoring human affairs. Reactions to the Professor’s startling revelations varied from those taking the comments as a major breakthrough on disclosure of extraterrestrial life, to many claiming he either had lost his mind or his words were distorted during the translation process.

It’s important to point out that Eshed gave the interview to promote his recent book, published in Hebrew, titled The Universe Beyond the Horizon conversations with Professor Haim Eshed. This is where one controversy arises since he appeared to say much more in his interview than what he told in his book.

Here’s the crux of what the Professor had to say according to an extract of the interview, translated into English, that was published by The Jewish Press on December 5, which set off the worldwide controversy:

The UFOs have asked not to publish that they are here, humanity is not ready yet. Trump was on the verge of revealing, but the aliens in the Galactic Federation are saying: Wait, let people calm down first. They don’t want to start mass hysteria. They want to first make us sane and understanding. They have been waiting for humanity to evolve and reach a stage where we will generally understand what space and spaceships are.

There’s an agreement between the US government and the aliens. They signed a contract with us to do experiments here. They, too, are researching and trying to understand the whole fabric of the universe, and they want us as helpers.

There’s an underground base in the depths of Mars, where their representatives are, and also our American astronauts.

Anticipating that some would conclude that he had lost his mind in making such comments, the Professor, who is also a former Brigadier General in the Israel Defense Force (IDF),  added for good measure:

If I had come up with what I’m saying today five years ago, I would have been hospitalized. Wherever I’ve gone with this in academia, they’ve said: the man has lost his mind. Today they’re already talking differently.

I have nothing to lose. I’ve received my degrees and awards, I am respected in universities abroad, where the trend is also changing.

Support for Professor Eshed’s continued sanity comes from former colleagues such as the current head of the Israel Space Agency, Dr.  Isaac Ben-Israel (also a former IDF general), who says that Eshed “has been talking about aliens for decades, and it never compromised his academic integrity.”

Ben-Israel’s admission is vitally important since it shows that Eshed’s beliefs about alleged alien contacts and joint agreements with the US have evolved over decades during much of his professional life, and not a post-career flight of fancy as contended by some.

Other former colleagues such Dr. Dan Blumberg, the current head of the Earth and Planetary Image Facility at Ben Gurion University, says that the extraterrestrial topic is an important one that Eshed is more than qualified to cover authoritatively, but not as appears in the original Yedioth article:

I know Haim Eshed well, and have enormous respect for him. It’s a viable and legitimate discussion, but it has been taken to a completely bizarre place by the article.

Blumberg’s position is similar to many in that Eshed’s views were either mistranslated or embellished in the original December 4 article. But were they?

What’s important to keep in mind in finding an answer is that the Yedioth Aharonot interview follows the traditional question and answer format, interspersed with the interviewer’s commentary. The commentary sections involve the interviewer applying Eshed’s views to contemporary developments, which might raise the possibility of mistranslation or embellishment. However, these commentaries are followed by the professor’s own words in answering a succession of questions about UFOs, extraterrestrial life and secret agreements, all done in the Hebrew language.

I did a Google Translate of the Yedioth Aharonot interview into English and found Eshed’s responses to questions where he addressed the issues of US alien agreements, a US base on Mars, and a Galactic Federation monitoring human events. I was able to confirm that his responses, through Google Translate, closely matched what was written in the Jewish Press story, and other Israeli news outlets, such as The Jerusalem Post and The Times of Israel, in their English language articles.

While I’m not proficient in the Hebrew language, nor does Google Translate do justice to what Eshed is saying, there is nevertheless consistency in the quotes attributed to him, by these three independent Israeli news stories, with the translation of the Professor’s own words by Google Translate.

Each Israeli source discussed the radical implications of what was said rather than raise problems of embellishment or translation. Clearly, the writers for each Israeli source read the original Yedioth Aharonot interview to get the gist of what Eshed was saying in his own words.

What was subsequently published in Israeli news sources are therefore  accurate translations of what Professor Eshed actually said rather than embellishments or distortions as suggested by leading UFO researchers such as Britain’s Nick Pope. He told NBC News: “Either this is some sort of practical joke or publicity stunt to help sell his book, perhaps with something having been lost in translation, or someone in the know is breaking ranks”.

Having eliminated translation or embellishment problems, then is Eshed “breaking ranks” and revealing long-held secrets as Pope suggests?

For an answer, we need to consider Eshed’s background, as revealed by Wikipedia and other sources. In 1969, Eshed was sent to the US by the Israel Defense Force’s (IDF) Intelligence Division to gain a Ph.D. in aeronautical engineering. Upon his return, he headed the IDF’s research and development department in the Intelligence Corps. By 1979, as Lt. Colonel in the IDF, he began to work on a detailed proposal for the establishment of a satellite program that could be used for space reconnaissance of the Middle East.

In 1981, Eshed retired from active military service and became a full-time professor at the Israel Institute of Technology, aka Technion, Israel’s oldest and top-ranked University. He subsequently played key roles in founding and leading the Israel Space Agency (1983) and the Technion’s (Asher) Space Research Institute (1984). Eshed managed Israel’s satellite projects, including its highly classified spy satellites responsible for monitoring the Middle East region for possible national security threats such as Iran’s secret construction of nuclear weapons facilities.

There are two phases during his military and civilian career that Eshed would have acquired access to information concerning extraterrestrial life and technology. The first phase involved his military service with the IDF, where Eshed worked with “Unit 81”, the secret technology unit of the Israeli Military Intelligence Directorate. It is the Israeli equivalent of the Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology.

It’s highly likely that Eshed, at some time during US Israeli collaborations on breakthrough technologies, would have learned about multiple highly classified DARPA/CIA programs conducted during the 1970s. One of these very likely included a joint US extraterrestrial base on Mars reported by various insiders associated with the Montauk Project (1971-1983).

Decades later, Laura Eisenhower, the great granddaughter of President Eisenhower, says that she was subjected to a recruitment effort for a secret US base on Mars, but declined despite great pressure exerted on her.

Consequently, it is likely that it is through joint US Israeli collaboration on breakthrough technologies while he was associated with Unit 81 during his military service that Eshed first learned about a secret US base on Mars and extraterrestrial agreements.

During his subsequent “civilian career” (1981-2010), Eshed no doubt continued to work closely with his peers from DARPA and the CIA on breakthrough technologies, while he focused on space surveillance technologies for the IDF.

Up to his retirement in October 2010, Professor Eshed had been responsible for the launch of 20 Israeli satellites during his nearly 30-year career at the Space Research Institute and the Israel Space Agency.

During his command of Israel’s spy satellite program, he now worked closely with US peers from the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), which runs spy satellites and is jointly run by the Pentagon and the CIA. It’s during joint intelligence sharing between the NRO, CIA, and the Pentagon’s National Security Agency (NSA), with the IDF, Israel Space Agency, and the Space Research Institute that Eshed presumably learned a lot more about highly classified US programs concerning UFOs and extraterrestrial life that he first learned about while working for Unit 81.

According to Dan Sherman, a 12-year veteran with the US Air Force (1982-1994), the NSA ran an electronic communications program (“Project Preserve Destiny”) with extraterrestrials that relayed details about abducted humans that were returned to their pick-up locations unharmed and with memories wiped. Sherman’s testimony matches what Prof. Eshed and others have said about US extraterrestrial agreements and genetic experiments.

As for Eshed’s revelations about a Galactic Federation monitoring human affairs and deciding that humanity is not yet ready for open contact, this is clearly a highly controversial claim. There have been many claims of an extraterrestrial Federation, Confederation, or Alliance monitoring human affairs and regulating multiple alien visitors’ activities to our world.

The earliest reference goes back to 1952 when the famed contactee, George Van Tassel, claimed to be in communication with the “Ashtar Command,” which was deemed to be part of a wider Galactic Federation, that requested the US abandon research into thermonuclear weapons. The Galactic Federation/Ashtar Command was involved in a failed diplomatic outreach that occurred on February 20, 1954, when President Eisenhower met with its representatives at Edwards Air Force base to discuss thermonuclear weapons testing. The extraterrestrial representatives further warned Eisenhower about unscrupulous alien groups that would soon make contact to make deals.

There has been over the subsequent decades a steady succession of contactees, insiders and channelers that have spoken or written about a Galactic Federation regulating human affairs. Eshed’s reference to the Galactic Federation adds credence to the legitimacy of such claims. Indeed, the subject of Galactic Diplomacy, which is the title of my 2013 book, has been given a healthy shot of credibility.

In a December 10 interview published on YouTube, I spoke with Corey Goode, a secret space program insider, about Professor Eshed’s claims concerning a Galactic Federation. Goode elaborated upon the different federations that he was aware of or that he interacted with during his SSP service and off planet contact experiences.

As for his claim that the Galactic Federation asserts humanity is not yet ready for open contact due to our lack of technological development, there are a few ways to interpret this. One may be that our overall technological level of development needs to be closer to a Type 1 status civilization according to the Kardashev scale. This is where the majority of humanity’s energy needs come from planet-wide energy generating systems. This would require humanity moving away from non-renewable fossil fuel sources to electromagnetic or other planet-wide energy systems.

Another interpretation is that the current global situation by which advanced technology is controlled by the Deep State and withheld from the rest of humanity needs to be dealt with before open contact can occur. In other words, the power of the Deep State needs to be removed or significantly curtailed before humanity is ready for contact. After all, why would a benign Galactic Federation want to admit a planetary member that is schizophrenic and corrupted by a hidden Deep State that contemptuously manipulates the rest of humanity?

In conclusion, Professor Eshed’s revelations have brought to the mainstream media’s attention information drawn from highly classified extraterrestrial related projects that have been earlier revealed by many brave insiders, witnesses, and contactees who were widely ridiculed and debunked for their disclosure efforts. It’s hard to debunk someone with Professor Eshed’s background and stature when he raises such controversial topics.

While there may be controversy over Eshed’s startling comments, this is not due to erroneous translations, embellishments, or him losing his mind. Instead, humanity is being told to wake up to truths about extraterrestrial life and secret agreements with the visitors that have been ignored and widely ridiculed for decades.

Many scientists, academics, and space professionals are in deep denial that they could have been fooled about such monumental issues during their distinguished careers. Professor Eshed’s revelations are a big wake up call. He is asking if we personally and collectively are ready for open contact with extraterrestrial life and a Galactic Federation.

[Note: Audio version of this article is available on YouTube and Spotify]

© Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Copyright Notice

Further Reading

Contact with Nordic Alien in USAF uniform whose spacecraft was photographed

In the final installment of this four part interview series we discuss photos JP took of spacecraft belonging to human looking “Nordic” extraterrestrials over MacDill AFB, Tampa, and also near his new home in Orlando, Florida. He describes an encounter he had with a Nordic in a USAF uniform who says they are helping the Air Force with advanced technology projects. JP described the Nordic’s uniform and a distinct patch he wore, before taking photos of the departing craft.

For Part 3 go to:

For Part 2 go to:

For Part 1 go to:

To learn more about JP and the photos he has taken of antigravity craft go to:

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