Tag: Milky Way

NASA Says Milky Way Could Have ‘Ocean Worlds’ All Over

Article by Chris Ciaccia                          June 22, 2020                              (nypost.com)

• NASA researchers have published a study in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific saying that more than a quarter of the 53 exoplanets outside our solar system may be “ocean worlds” having significant amounts of water.

• “Plumes of water erupt from Europa and Enceladus, so we can tell that these bodies have subsurface oceans beneath their ice shells and they have energy that drives the plumes, which are two requirements for life as we know it,” said the study’s lead author Lynnae Quick, a NASA planetary scientist. “So if we’re thinking about these places as being possibly habitable, maybe bigger versions of them in other planetary systems are habitable too.” As such, Europa and Enceladus, moons that orbit Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, are icy celestial bodies that could harbor extraterrestrial life.

• Quick and the other researchers looked at exoplanets similar in size to Earth, along with exoplanets’ density, orbit, temperature, mass and distance from their star to reach their conclusions. These “ocean worlds” could release more energy than even Enceladus and Europa.

• Although studies tend to focus on exoplanets like ours that have a global biosphere so abundant it’s changing the chemistry of the whole atmosphere, NASA Goddard astrophysicist and study co-author Aki Roberge says, “(Within our) solar system, icy moons with oceans, which are far from the heat of the Sun, still have shown that they have the features we think are required for life.”

• Future missions searching for exterritorial life within our solar system include the Europa Clipper mission set to launch as soon as 2023, which will explore the surface of Europa. “If we find chemical signatures of life, we can try to look for similar signs at interstellar distances,” Quick added.

• As of June 2020. More then 4,000 exoplanets have been identified, approximately 50 of which were believed to be potentially habitable. A study published earlier this month suggested that there could be 36 alien civilizations in the Milky Way (see ExoArticle here). Another study this month suggested there could be as many as 6 billion “Earth-like” planets in the galaxy (see ExoArticle here).

 

                Aki Roberge

A newly published study from NASA researchers suggests that there may be planets in the Milky Way galaxy other than Earth that have an ocean.

The research, published in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, notes more than a quarter of the 53 exoplanets — planets outside the Solar System — that were studied could potentially be “ocean worlds,” planets that have significant amounts of water.

                          Lynnae Quick

“Plumes of water erupt from Europa and Enceladus, so we can tell that these bodies have subsurface oceans beneath their ice shells and they have energy that drives the plumes, which are two requirements for life as we know it,” Lynnae Quick, NASA planetary scientist and the study’s lead author, said in a statement. “So if we’re thinking about these places as being possibly habitable, maybe bigger versions of them in other planetary systems are habitable too.”

Europa and Enceladus, moons that orbit Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, are icy celestial bodies that could potentially be home to extraterrestrial life.
Quick, who specializes in volcanism and ocean worlds and the other researchers looked at exoplanets similar in size to Earth, including a group of seven in the TRAPPIST-1 system, 39 light-years from Earth. A light-year, which represents distance in space, is the equivalent of about 6 trillion miles.
In addition to size, they looked at density, orbit, temperature, mass and how far the planets are from their star to come up with their conclusions.

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Six Billion Earth-Like Planets Could Exist in Galaxy

Article by Sean Martin                                June 17, 2020                                (express.co.uk)

• Searching through data from NASA’s planet hunting telescope Kepler, scientists from the University of British Columbia published a study in The Astronomical Journal estimating the likelihood of rocky Earth-like worlds which could contain water, within the Milky Way galaxy. A planet must also orbit a G-type star, like our Sun, and be positioned within the ‘Goldilocks Zone’ – the region around a star where it is neither too hot nor too cold – for life to exist.

• Astronomer Jaymie Matthews says, “Our Milky Way has as many as 400 billion stars, with seven per cent of them being G-type. So approximately six billion stars may have Earth-like planets in our Galaxy.” Researcher and co-author Michelle Kunimoto uses a technique known as ‘forward modelling’. “I started by simulating the full population of exoplanets around the stars Kepler searched. I marked each planet as ‘detected’ or ‘missed’ depending on how likely it was my planet search algorithm would have found them. Then, I compared the detected planets to my actual catalog of planets. If the simulation produced a close match, then the initial population was likely a good representation of the actual population of planets orbiting those stars.”

• Kunimoto also limits the possible number of habitable exoplanets where there exists a “radius gap”, “[I]t is uncommon for planets with orbital periods [of] less than 100 days to have a size between 1.5 and two times that of Earth,” says Kunimoto. “My calculations place an upper limit of 0.18 Earth-like planets per G-type star.” Previous estimates have suggested that there could be as few as 0.02 Earth-like planets per Sun-like star.

 

                  Jaymie Matthews

There are as many as 400 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy alone, meaning there could be trillions of planets. As is evident from our solar system, the majority of these planets would be lifeless and barren, but billions could still be hospitable for life, according to new research. Scientists from the University of British Columbia (UBC) have searched through data from NASA’s planet hunting telescope Kepler to determine the likelihood of Earth-like planets – rocky worlds which could contain water.

       Michelle Kunimoto

To be considered Earth-like, the planet must also orbit a star like our Sun, known as a G-type star, according to the research published in The Astronomical Journal.

It also has to orbit the star in what is known as the Goldilocks Zone – the region around a star where it is neither too hot nor too cold for life to exist.
UBC researcher Michelle Kunimoto, co-author of the new study, said: “My calculations place an upper limit of 0.18 Earth-like planets per G-type star

“Estimating how common different kinds of planets are around different stars can provide important constraints on planet formation and evolution theories, and help optimise future missions dedicated to finding exoplanets”.

UBC astronomer Jaymie Matthews: “Our Milky Way has as many as 400 billion stars, with seven per cent of them being G-type.
“That means less than six billion stars may have Earth-like planets in our Galaxy.”

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Aliens Need More Attention

by Alligator Editorial Board                  Jun 3, 2019                  (alligator.org)

  • Until recently, the human perception of aliens was these little guys way out in space. This is no longer the case. With a May 26th New York Times article we learned of Navy pilots who witnessed UFOs with “no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes but could reach 30,000 feet and hypersonic speeds.” Almost every day from the summer of 2014 to March 2015, these bizarre objects flew over the East Coast.

  • The lack of public interest from this report was surprising. What happened to people’s fascination with the unknown? Not a single meme appeared on the internet. Seriously? We didn’t expect much outspoken response from the average person who pays an average amount of attention to the news. But we expected more from the people that are so quick to judge journalism and share news articles with the caption “fake news!!!”

  • The size of the universe is hard to wrap our brains around. We can’t be the only ones. Even if we narrow our universal search just to the Milky Way, there would be around 1 million planets with potential life. The ‘zoo hypothesis’ claims aliens have set us aside in a planetary ‘wilderness’ like captive zoo animals. Or are the ETs waiting for us to reach a technological plateau before they reveal themselves to us?

  • Maybe we humans just refuse to give the extraterrestrials the attention they deserve. They flew all the way here, scared the crap out of some Navy pilot, got The New York Times to write about it, and we still didn’t care.

  • Earth’s hospitality rating could be cosmically low and aliens have better vacation destinations to spend their hard earned fuel traveling to. Why visit a planet whose inhabitants don’t even bat an eye when you visit? Earth could be the Mount Trashmore of the universe with only the crazies wanting to visit this dump.

  • [Editor’s Note]    It’s the crazies who are running this planet.  The rest of the civilized universe is waiting for the humans on Earth to get our act together, expose the treachery that has become our reality, and change our existence by way of higher consciousness.  It is up to us as a sovereign race of beings to reclaim our planet, and not the ETs who, by cosmic law, must only sit back and watch it play out.  Once we have successfully awoken, the patient and benevolent ETs will accept us as a new member of the Galactic family.

 

Aliens have fascinated humans since the discovery of space. E.T., ALF, Spock and Marvin the Martian are just a few of the extraterrestrial characters from humanity’s imagination. The human perception of aliens goes to show how dedicated we are to the unknown little (or very big) guys way out in space. At least this seemed to be the case until recently.

On May 26, The New York Times published an article reporting Navy pilots witnessed objects with “no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes but could reach 30,000 feet and hypersonic speeds.”

Almost every day from the summer of 2014 to March 2015, these bizarre objects flew over the East Coast. Although the U.S. Department of Defense did not call this extraterrestrial activity, the lack of public interest from this report was surprising.

What happened to people’s fascination with the unknown?

Not even a meme or blurb in the Twitter-sphere about aliens came about. At least a bit on aliens getting “slept on” would have sufficed. Seriously? Not a single meme from this article? Shame on you Internet. What a wasted opportunity.

Given that the NYT article came out over Memorial Day weekend, people could have been too busy drinking and boating to care too much about the possibility of unidentified flying objects. We didn’t expect much outspoken response from the average person who pays an average amount of attention to the news. But we expected more from the people that are so quick to judge journalism and share news articles with the caption “fake news!!!” Isn’t this the kind of thing people love to make conspiracy theories about?

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