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Meet J. Allen Hynek, the Astronomer Who First Classified UFO ‘Close Encounters’

by Greg Daugherty                      November 19, 2018                      (history.com)

• In 1947, a rash of reports of UFOs had the public on edge. The Air Force created Project Sign to investigate these UFO sightings. But they needed outside expertise to sift through the reports and come up with explanations for all of these sightings. Enter J. Allen Hynek.

• In 1948, Hynek was the 37-year-old director at Ohio State University’s McMillin Observatory. He had worked for the government during WWII developing new defense technologies for the war effort with a high security clearance. The Air Force approached him to be a consultant on ‘flying saucers’ for the government. “I had scarcely heard of UFOs in 1948 and, like every other scientist I knew, assumed that they were nonsense,” Hynek recalled.

• Hynek’s UFO investigations under Project Sign resulted in twenty percent of the 237 cases that couldn’t be explained. In February 1949, Project Sign was succeeded by Project Grudge, which said Hynek, “took as its premise that UFOs simply could not be.” The 1949 Grudge report concluded that the phenomena posed no danger to the United States, and warranted no further study.

• But UFO incidents continued, even from the Air Force’s own radar operators. The national media began treating the phenomenon more seriously. The Air Force had little choice but to revive Project Grudge under a new name: Project Blue Book. Hynek joined Project Blue Book in 1952 and would remain with it until its demise in 1969. But he had changed his mind about the existence of UFOs. “The witnesses I interviewed could have been lying, could have been insane or could have been hallucinating collectively—but I do not think so,” he recalled in 1977. Hynek deplored the ridicule that people who reported a UFO sighting often had to endure, causing untold numbers of others to never come forward, not to mention the loss of useful research data.

• “Given the controversial nature of the subject, it’s understandable that both scientists and witnesses are reluctant to come forward,” said Jacques Vallee, co-author with Dr. Hynek of The Edge of Reality: A Progress Report on Unidentified Flying Objects.

• On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the world by launching Sputnik, a serious blow to Americans’ sense of technological superiority. Hynek was on TV assuring Americans that their scientists were closely monitoring the situation. UFO sightings continued unabated.

• In the 1960s, Hynek was the top expert on UFOs as scientific consultant to Project Blue Book. But he chafed at what he perceived as the project’s mandate to debunk UFO sightings, and the inadequate resources at his disposal. Air Force Major Hector Quintanilla, who headed the project from 1963 to 1969, writes that he considered Hynek a “liability.”

• Hynek frustrated UFO debunkers such as the U.S. Air Force. But in 1966, after suggesting that a UFO sighting in Michigan may have been an optical illusion created by swamp gas, he became a punchline for UFO believers as well.

• In his testimony for a Congressional hearing in 1966, Hynek stated, “[I]t is my opinion that the body of data accumulated since 1948…deserves close scrutiny by a civilian panel of physical and social scientists…”. The Air Force established a civilian committee of scientists to investigate UFOs, chaired by physicist, Dr. Edward U. Condon. In 1968, Hynek assailed the Condon Report’s conclusion that “further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified.” In 1969, Project Blue Book shut down for good.

• UFO sightings continued around the world. Hynek later quipped, “apparently [they] did not read the Condon Report”. Hynek went on with his research, free from the compromises and bullying of the U.S. Air Force.

• In 1972, Hynek published his first book, The UFO Experience. It introduced Hynek’s classifications of UFO incidents, which he called Close Encounters. Close Encounters of the First Kind meant UFOs seen at a close enough range to make out some details. In a Close Encounter of the Second Kind, the UFO had a physical effect, such as scorching trees, frightening animals or causing car motors to suddenly conk out. In Close Encounters of the Third Kind, witnesses reported seeing occupants in or near a UFO.

• In 1977, Steven Spielberg released the movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Hynek was paid $1,000 for the use of the title, another $1,000 for the rights to use stories from the book and $1,500 for three days of technical consulting. He also had a brief cameo in the film, playing an awestruck scientist when the alien spacecraft comes into view.

• In 1978, Hynek retired from teaching. In 1973 he had founded the Center for UFO Studies which continues to this day. Hynek died in 1986, at age 75, from a brain tumor.

 

It’s September 1947, and the U.S. Air Force has a problem. A rash of reports about mysterious objects in the skies has the public on edge and the military baffled. The Air Force needs to figure out what’s going on—and fast. It launches an investigation it calls Project Sign.

By early 1948 the team realizes it needs some outside expertise to sift through the reports it’s receiving—specifically an astronomer who can determine which cases are easily explained by astronomical phenomena, such as planets, stars or meteors.

For J. Allen Hynek, then the 37-year-old director at Ohio State University’s McMillin Observatory, it would be a classic case of being in the right place at the right time—or, as he may have occasionally lamented, the wrong place at the wrong one.

The adventure begins

Hynek had worked for the government during the war, developing new defense technologies like the first radio-controlled fuse, so he already had a high security clearance and was a natural go-to.

“One day I had a visit from several men from the technical center at Wright-Patterson Air Force base, which was only 60 miles away in Dayton,” Hynek later wrote. “With some obvious embarrassment, the men eventually brought up the subject of ‘flying saucers’ and asked me if I would care to serve as consultant to the Air Force on the matter… The job didn’t seem as though it would take too much time, so I agreed.”

Little did Hynek realize that he was about to begin a lifelong odyssey that would make him one of the most famous and, at times, controversial scientists of the 20 century. Nor could he have guessed how much his own thinking about UFOs would change over that period as he persisted in bringing rigorous scientific inquiry to the subject.

“I had scarcely heard of UFOs in 1948 and, like every other scientist I knew, assumed that they were nonsense,” he recalled.

Project Sign ran for a year, during which the team reviewed 237 cases. In Hynek’s final report, he noted that about 32 percent of incidents could be attributed to astronomical phenomena, while another 35 percent had other explanations, such as balloons, rockets, flares or birds. Of the remaining 33 percent, 13 percent didn’t offer enough evidence to yield an explanation. That left 20 percent that provided investigators with some evidence but still couldn’t be explained.

The Air Force was loath to use the term “unidentified flying object,” so the mysterious 20 percent were simply classified as “unidentified.”

In February 1949, Project Sign was succeeded by Project Grudge. While Sign offered at least a pretense of scientific objectivity, Grudge seems to have been dismissive from the start, just as its angry-sounding name suggests. Hynek, who played no role in Project Grudge, said it “took as its premise that UFOs simply could not be.” Perhaps not surprisingly, its report, issued at the end of 1949, concluded that the phenomena posed no danger to the United States, having resulted from mass hysteria, deliberate hoaxes, mental illness or conventional objects that the witnesses had misinterpreted as otherworldly. It also suggested the subject wasn’t worth further study.

Project Blue Book is born

That might’ve been the end of it. But UFO incidents continued, including some puzzling reports from the Air Force’s own radar operators. The national media began treating the phenomenon more seriously; LIFE magazine did a 1952 cover story, and even the widely respected TV journalist Edward R. Murrow devoted a program to the topic, including an interview with Kenneth Arnold, a pilot whose 1947 sighting of mysterious objects over Mount Rainier in Washington state popularized the term “flying saucer.” The Air Force had little choice but to revive Project Grudge, which soon morphed into the more benignly named Project Blue Book.

Hynek joined Project Blue Book in 1952 and would remain with it until its demise in 1969. For him, it was a side gig as he continued to teach and to pursue other, non-UFO research, at Ohio State. In 1960 he moved to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, to chair its astronomy department.

As before, Hynek’s role was to review the reports of UFO sightings and determine whether there was a logical astronomical explanation. Typically that involved a lot of unglamorous paperwork; but now and then, for an especially puzzling case, he had a chance to get out into the field.

There he discovered something he might never have learned from simply reading the files: how normal the people who reported seeing UFOs tended to be. “The witnesses I interviewed could have been lying, could have been insane or could have been hallucinating collectively—but I do not think so,” he recalled in his 1977 book, The Hynek UFO Report.

“Their standing in the community, their lack of motive for perpetration of a hoax, their own puzzlement at the turn of events they believe they witnessed, and often their great reluctance to speak of the experience—all lend a subjective reality to their UFO experience.”

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FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

Did Trump’s Uncle Tell Him about Missing Tesla Papers & Flying Saucers?

President Donald Trump’s uncle, John G. Trump, was a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1936 until his retirement in 1973. It is well known that declassified documents confirm that in January 1943 Professor Trump was called upon by the FBI to evaluate the personal papers of Nikola Tesla just over a week after his death. What is not well known is that there is also a leaked classified document that also connects Professor Trump to another famous event in US history – the crash of a flying saucer at Roswell in 1947.

According to a memorial tribute published by the National Academy of Engineering, John Trump joined MIT to work with Professor Robert J. Van de Graaff, who was a pioneer in “the new field of super-high voltage generation and applications.” After gaining a Doctorate under Van de Graaff in 1933, Trump went on to become an assistant professor in 1936, and a full professor in 1952 at MIT.

Robert Van de Graff demonstrating one of his early generators. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

According to the memorial tribute:

John Trump had two main interests: the insulation of super-high voltages in vacuum and compressed gases and the biological applications of high voltage radiation.

During World War II, Trump worked on microwave radar at MIT’s Radiation Lab, where he served as “field services director”, and also was posted to the British branch of the Radiation Lab where he worked directly with General Dwight D. Eisenhower: 

In 1944, he was named director of the lab and given the responsibility of working directly with the Eisenhower Military Command. At the liberation of Paris, Trump rode into the city with General Eisenhower and immediately began to set up the Paris branch of the Radiation Lab.

Trump’s expertise with high voltages and radiation was widely acknowledged by U.S. authorities, and he also was very familiar with the requirements for working in classified government programs.

In 1943, he played a major role in the examination of Nikola Tesla’s personal papers that were acquired by the FBI/Office Alien Property Custodian soon after Tesla’s January 13 death. An FBI document included Trump among the scientists and experts investigating Tesla’s papers:

Tesla was the author of over 200 patents granted worldwide, and made numerous claims about building death rays and electrostatic walls of energy that could protect any country from attack.

Among Tesla’s inventions was a revolutionary disc shaped aircraft – a flying saucer – which he allegedly filed a patent application for in the early 1900’s, but it was not granted on national security grounds. Apparently, Tesla planned for his flying saucer to be remotely powered by a “world wireless system” which he first discussed in a March 5, 1904 paper titled: “The Transmission of Electric Energy Without Wires”. Tesla wrote:

Not only was it practicable to send telegraphic messages to any distance without wires, as I recognized long ago, but also to impress upon the entire globe the faint modulations of the human voice, far more still, to transmit power, in unlimited amounts, to any terrestrial distance and almost without loss… 

Tesla went on to describe how his “world wireless system” would be powered by devices similar to his legendary Wardenclyff Tower, which would be eventually capable of generating huge electrostatic charges that surpassed that found in lightning bolts: 

It is difficult to form an adequate idea of the marvelous power of this unique appliance, by the aid of which the globe will be transformed.  The electromagnetic radiations being reduced to an insignificant quantity, and proper conditions of resonance maintained, the circuit acts like an immense pendulum, storing indefinitely the energy of the primary exciting impulses and impressions upon the earth of the primary exciting impulses and impressions upon the earth and its conducting atmosphere uniform harmonic oscillations of intensities which, as actual tests have shown, may be pushed so far as to surpass those attained in the natural displays of static electricity.

Tesla’s proposal of building a “world wireless system” that could power any remote device, including his proposed flying saucer, was certainly revolutionary. What is critical here is that his proposal for building devices capable of generating huge electrostatic charges was the precise topic that Professor Trump had specialized in at MIT with his work on Van de Graaff generators!

So did Tesla really design a flying saucer that would be powered by a some kind of Van de Graaff generator?

A New York inventor, Otis Carr, claims that he befriended Tesla in 1937 while Tesla was living at the New Yorker Hotel, and was instructed by Tesla on how to build a flying saucer that would be powered by an electrical generator.

Over a decade later, Carr succeeded in getting a patent for his revolutionary flying saucer craft, which he called an amusement park device in order to get it approved by the US Trade and Patent Office. After raising private funding to build his OTC-XI, he successfully tested his flying saucer in 1961. According to one of Carr’s former employees, Ralph Ring, the saucer incorporated high voltage machines for its propulsion and navigation systems.

Unfortunately, Ring also told of how Carr’s manufacturing facility was raided and closed down by Federal agents on bogus charges of securities fraud.

If Carr and Ring are to be believed, a civilian spacecraft based on Nikola Tesla’s ideas and inventions was successfully built and tested in 1961. Were any of Tesla’s ideas on building a flying saucer device found in his personal papers after his death?

An article in the New Yorker, described Trump’s role in evaluating Tesla’s papers:

Trump was involved in radar research for the Allies in the Second World War, and in 1943 the F.B.I. had enough faith in his technical ability and his discretion to call him in when Nikola Tesla died in his room at the New Yorker Hotel, in Manhattan, raising the question of whether enemy agents might have had a chance to learn some of his secrets before the body was found. (One fear was that Tesla was working on a “death ray.”) As Margaret Cheney and Robert Uth recount in “Tesla, Master of Lightning,”

Professor Trump examined Tesla’s papers and equipment, and wrote a report for the FBI stating nothing of national security significance was found within them:

As a result of this examination, it is my considered opinion that there exist among Dr. Tesla’s papers and possessions no scientific notes, descriptions of hitherto unrevealed methods or devices, or actual apparatus which could be of significant value to this country or which constitute a hazard in unfriendly hands. I can therefore see no technical or military reason why further custody of the property should be retained.

Professor Trump went on to give his conclusion about the importance of Tesla’s work over the prior 15 years:

It should be no discredit to this distinguished engineer and scientists whose solid contributions to the electrical art were made at the beginning of the present century to report that his thoughts and efforts during at least the past fifteen years were primarily of a speculative, philosophical, and somewhat promotional character – often concerned with the production and wireless transmission of power – but did not include new sound, workable principles or methods for realizing such results.

Trump did not appear to be impressed by Tesla’s background or what had been found in the latter’s papers when it came to its potential war application.

Given Tesla’s claims and what numerous researchers have discovered about his revolutionary ideas, this appears odd. Either Trump found nothing of importance as he reported to the FBI, or he was instructed by higher military authorities to cover up the true significance of Tesla’s papers in his report to the FBI.

According to Margaret Cheney, author of Tesla: Man Out of Time, some of Tesla’s documents, inventions and patents applications were seized by FBI agents and never released into the public arena. If Cheney is correct, then John Trump did find items of importance among Tesla’s collection that were taken and have been kept secret from the public to the present day.

Despite the controversy over what was retrieved from Tesla’s collection, it is clear that he worked on developing revolutionary technologies, some of which are relevant to flying saucer propulsion systems. Otis Carr’s claims directly connect Tesla to such exotic propulsion technologies.

The relevance of all this is that John Trump was the man the FBI wanted to help them decide whether Tesla’s personal papers contained revolutionary technologies that were vital to national security or not. Essentially, the FBI viewed Trump as the expert who could make the necessary recommendations on the revolutionary technologies, some of which concerned flying saucers, which the FBI and the US military was secretly studying from what had been retrieved at Roswell and other crash sites.

A little known historical fact is that Van de Graaff generators, which Professor John Trump specialized in at MIT, were a key component of flying saucer research being secretly conducted in Nazi Germany. According to Vladimir Terziski, an electrical engineer who was a member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences before emigrating to the US, Van de Graaff machines were part of the propulsion system for different flying saucer prototypes being developed by Nazi Germany.

Terziski explained that Vril and Haunebu models possessed an electro-gravitics propulsion system called Thule-Tachyonator drives. These were first developed in 1939 by a Nazi SS development unit which incorporated Van de Graaff generators, as learned from SS documents acquired and released by Terziski after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact:

This group developed by 1939 a revolutionary electro-magnetic-gravitic engine which improved Hans Coler’s free energy machine into an energy Konverter coupled to a Van De Graaff band generator and Marconi vortex dynamo [a spherical tank of mercury] to create powerful rotating electromagnetic fields that affected gravity and reduced mass. It was designated the Thule … [Tachyonator-7 drive] and was to be installed into a Thule designed disc.

If Trump’s expertise on Van de Graaff generators led to him learning about the propulsion systems used in flying saucer research, is there any documentary evidence linking Professor Trump to US government’s research and development in this regard?

Indeed, there is. A Majestic document called the “White Hot Report” was given a “High Level of Authenticity” rating by Dr Robert Wood and Ryan Wood, who specialize in researching and authenticating leaked government and military documents given MAJIC and similar level security classifications.

The leaked Majestic document concerns a report by then Major General Nathan Twining about the need to set up a permanent committee to evaluate the Roswell UFO Crash given the many vital national security issues surrounding the visitation of extraterrestrial life and their advanced technologies. The White Hot Report describes a list of scientific institutions involved in the study of such extraterrestrial artifacts. Prominently listed among them is MIT.

This is a stunning discovery since it directly links the institution where Professor Trump worked, with secret government studies of the Roswell UFO Crash. Given Trump’s expertise in high voltage radiation and Van de Graaff generators, his 1943 role in evaluating Tesla’s personal papers and work for classified US government programs during World War II, it is reasonable to conclude that Trump was almost certainly among the MIT experts consulted about the revolutionary technologies found at Roswell.

Trump was likely also very familiar with top secret research and development efforts by US authorities to develop flying saucer technologies for a future space program due to his expertise on Van de Graff generators – a vital component of flying saucer propulsion systems.  

The big question is, did Professor Trump pass any of this amazing information to his nephew, Donald?

John Trump died in 1985, at age 78, when Donald was 39, and at the time a successful real estate magnate who was often giving interviews to major media outlets.

Trump first mentioned his uncle in a 1984 New York Times profile where he said that they first began to talk about physics and nuclear disarmament 15 years earlier. Donald was around 23 at the time and had a year earlier (May 1968) graduated from Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, with a Bachelor of Science in economics.

The New York Times explained the influence his uncle had on Trump about nuclear disarmament:

[Donald Trump] says that his concern for nuclear holocaust is not one that popped into his mind during any recent made-of-television movie. He says that it has been troubling him since his uncle, a nuclear physicist, began talking to him about it 15 years ago.

At a June 12 2018 press conference, after his meeting with North Korean’s leader, Kim Jong-Un, President Trump spoke about his uncle and how he had helped shape his views on the importance of nuclear disarmament:

I used to discuss nuclear with him all the time … He was a great expert, he was a great brilliant genius.

Trump’s references to his uncle John, shows how influential he had been in shaping his views on nuclear disarmament and other advanced science topics. Could some of these discussions have covered inventions developed by Nikola Tesla and technologies retrieved from the Roswell UFO crash?

There are two actions taken by Trump during and after his Presidential inauguration that suggest that Tesla’s inventions and the Roswell UFO crash were among the subjects he and his uncle had privately discussed.

During his inauguration speech, Trump said:

We stand at the birth of a new millennium, ready to unlock the mysteries of space, to free the earth from the miseries of disease, and to harness the energies, industries and technologies of tomorrow.

Trump is here clearly alluding to some revolutionary technologies that his administration plans to release, which will transform the health, transportation and space industries.

Trump issued a Top Secret Memorandum a day or so after his inauguration speech dealing with such revolutionary technologies, according to secret space program insider Corey Goode whose testimony has featured in the best selling documentary, Above Majestic. Essentially, Trump demanded that the intelligence community revoke their secrecy orders on a thousand of the then 5,680 patent applications that were being held up. He allegedly told them to do so within a two-year period.

It’s quite possible that some of the confiscated Tesla’s papers included patent applications that would be among those that had been held up by the intelligence community, and perhaps even include his alleged flying saucer device that would be remotely powered by a worldwide wireless system. According to the Federation of American Scientists, the number of patent applications held up by secrecy orders had increased to 5,784 by the end of 2017.

If Trump had issued such a Memorandum, there is yet no sign it is being put into practice by the intelligence community. This may be due to the intense behind the scenes battle between the Trump administration and the Deep State as I have covered in previous articles.

The second action suggesting his uncle had told him about Tesla’s inventions and the Roswell crash concerns President Trump’s proposal for a Space Force, despite objections by Congress and even the US military. His proposal may well be driven by his knowledge that flying saucer technologies incorporating high voltage radiation and Van de Graaff machines found at Roswell, which his Uncle John had confidentially told him about, had been secretly developed and built decades ago for one or more secret space programs.

The idea that Trump knows of secret space programs and extraterrestrial life is strengthened by recent posts by the military intelligence group working with his administration, Q Anon, confirming their reality. Most importantly, QAnon was signaling that the Trump administration has a full disclosure agenda.

Trump’s desire for a Space Force appears to be part of a plan to wrest control of information concerning secret space programs and extraterrestrial life, away from the Deep State and transnational corporations. If Trump succeeds in his plan to empower the Office of the President of United States to run such highly classified programs, then the revolutionary changes promised in his inauguration speech, may not be too far away at all.

If so, we may ultimately have John Trump to thank for inspiring his nephew at an early age about the existence of life changing health and transportation technologies connected to classified research of flying saucers, some of which originate dates back to the pioneering research of Nikola Tesla conducted over a century ago.

© Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Copyright Notice

Further Reading

UFOs: “A Memorandum of Importance”

by Nick Redfern                  May 11, 2018                 (mysteriousuniverse.org)

• There is a document on the FBI’s website, The Vault, entitled “A Memorandum of Importance” dated July 1947 and authored by someone who only identified him or herself as someone with “several university degrees and was formerly a university department head”. It was declassified and released to the public in 1976.

• “This Memorandum is respectfully addressed to certain scientists of distinction to important aeronautical and military authorities, to a number of public officials and to a few publications…The writer has little expectation that anything of import will be accomplished by this gesture. The more fact that the data herein were obtained by so-called supernormal means is probably sufficient to insure its disregard by nearly all the persons addressed; nevertheless it seems a public duty to make it available.”

• The source warns: “A very serious situation may develop at any time with regard to the ‘flying saucers.’ If one of these should be attacked, the attacking plane will almost certainly be destroyed. In the public mind this might create near panic and international suspicion. The principal data concerning these craft is now at hand and must be offered, no matter how fantastic and unintelligible it may seem to minds not previously instructed in thinking of this type.”

• The memo’s writer goes on to describe the UFOs and extraterrestrials controlling them (paraphrased in part): The ET’s are human-like but larger, and their mission is peaceful. They come from an etheric planet which overlaps our own and is not perceptible to us. Their ET bodies and craft will automatically materialize when they lower their vibratory rate to that of our dense matter, and they will disappear from our vision the same way. They possess an energy ray that can easily disintegrate any attacking ship.

• The memo concludes: “We give information and warning, and can do no more. Let the newcomers be treated with every kindness.”

 

I’m not entirely sure why, but just recently a 71-year-old statement on UFOs has been circulating here and there on the Net. It cropped up just a couple of days ago in the comments section of one of my Facebook posts. And it also popped up on the website of a radio show I was on recently. It’s also a statement that has caused some confusion and outright mistakes. Basically, it’s one person’s theory on what is behind the UFO phenomenon. The writer makes a lot of controversial claims that take matters far away from the regular “nuts and bolts” aspect of Ufology. As for why some people have gotten all excited about it, there’s no doubt that it’s because the statement is available at the FBI’s website, The Vault.

The statement at issue – titled “A Memorandum of Importance” – was prepared in early July 1947. And, as the writer noted: “This Memorandum is respectfully addressed to certain scientists of distinction to important aeronautical and military authorities, to a number of public officials and to a few publications.” He or she continues: “The writer has little expectation that anything of import will be accomplished by this gesture. The more fact that the data herein were obtained by so-called supernormal means is probably sufficient to insure its disregard by nearly all the persons addressed; nevertheless it seems a public duty to make it available. (The present writer has several university degrees and was formerly a university department head).”

Our source warns: “A very serious situation may develop at any time with regard to the ‘flying saucers.’ If one of these should be attacked, the attacking plane will almost certainly be destroyed. In the public mind this might create near panic and international suspicion. The principal data concerning these craft is now at hand and must be offered, no matter how fantastic and unintelligible it may seem to minds not previously instructed in thinking of this type.”

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FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

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