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NASA Expert Urges to Take Alien Claims Seriously – ‘There Must Be Life’

by Sebastian Kettely                 March 19, 2019                       (express.co.uk)

• With the rocket-based space travel, it is estimated that it would take between 5 and 50 million years for a civilization like ours to colonize our Milky Way galaxy. This should have happened several times already with previous civilizations in the history of our galaxy. But there is still no hard evidence of space faring civilizations. This discrepancy has been dubbed the Fermi Paradox.

• While a growing community of UFO researchers are certain that aliens visit Earth on a regular basis, such claims are immediately dismissed by the scientific community. Scientists demand solid proof – “smoking gun” evidence – which could once and for all prove the existence of UFOs.

• A former NASA researcher and physicist at the University of Albany, Kevin Knuth, argues that such immediate skepticism to all UFO-related theories is counterproductive. “I think UFO skepticism has become something of a religion with an agenda, discounting the possibility of extraterrestrials without scientific evidence, while often providing silly hypotheses describing only one or two aspects of a UFO encounter reinforcing the popular belief that there is a conspiracy,” says Knuth. “In the end, the skeptics often do science a disservice by providing a poor example of how science is to be conducted.”

• Knuth does not rule out the possibility of extraterrestrial UFOs visiting the Earth. “[S]ince little is known, the extraterrestrial hypothesis cannot yet be ruled out. “The fact is that many of these encounters… defy conventional explanation.”

• Knuth said it would greatly benefit the scientific community to try and better understand alien visitors should they ever arrive. “[T]his would present a great opportunity for mankind, promising to expand and advance our knowledge and technology, as well as reshaping our understanding of our place in the universe.”

• William Borucki, the principal investigator for NASA’s Kepler mission, said, “If we find lots of planets like ours we’ll know it’s likely that we aren’t alone, and that someday we might be able to join other intelligent life in the universe.” The biggest problem faced by human explorers today is the lack of speedy and efficient interstellar travel technology. “Unless we get lucky, the search for signs of life could take decades.”

 

NASA’s hunt for proof of alien life is at the forefront of the space agency’s deep space exploration. But here on Earth, many conspiracy theorists and self-appointed UFO-hunters are already certain aliens visit Earth on a regular basis. Most of these alien claims, supposed UFO sightings and stories of mysterious crop circles appearing overnight are immediately dismissed by the scientific community. A former NASA researcher and physicist at the University of Albany, however, has argued immediate scepticism to all UFO-related theories is counterproductive.

             Dr. Kevin Knuth

Kevin Knuth, an associate professor at Albany, argued in an opinion piece for Cosmos Magazine, the odds of life existing outside of Earth are pretty high.

The “unsettling and refreshing” possibility is exactly why, he argued, more attention needs to be paid to what is happening in the skies.

Dr Knuth said: “I think UFO scepticism has become something of a religion with an agenda, discounting the possibility of extraterrestrials without scientific evidence, while often providing silly hypotheses describing only one or two aspects of a UFO encounter reinforcing the popular belief that there is a conspiracy.

“A scientist must consider all of the possible hypotheses that explain all of the data, and since little is known, the extraterrestrial hypothesis cannot yet be ruled out.

“In the end, the sceptics often do science a disservice by providing a poor example of how science is to be conducted.
“The fact is that many of these encounters – still a very small percentage of the total – defy conventional explanation.”

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Galaxy Simulations Offer a New Solution to the Fermi Paradox

by Rebecca Boyle                March 7, 2019                   (quantamagazine.org)

• The universe is filled with stars, nearly all those stars have planets, and some of those planets are surely livable. So where is everybody? This is the ongoing conundrum that is the Fermi Paradox, first presented by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi in 1950.

• In 1981, Carl Sagan and William Newman speculated that the answer to the paradox was that intelligent people were simply too far away from us to come here. But they may do so in time. Others reason that tech-savvy civilizations are rare and prone to self-destruction, or are avoiding the Earth on purpose. In 1975, the astrophysicist Michael Hart declared there simply are no other intelligence civilizations in the universe (a hypothesis recently revived by Oxford researcher, Anders Samberg).

• Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, an astronomer at the University of Rochester, has led another study, now under review by The Astrophysical Journal. Carroll-Nellenback says that it wouldn’t take very long for a space-faring civilization to spread across the galaxy because the movement of stars throughout the galaxy would “… spread life on time scales much shorter than the age of the galaxy” and help distribute life. “The sun has been around the center of the Milky Way 50 times.” According to simulations by Carroll-Nellenback and his colleagues Jason Wright, Adam Frank, and Caleb Scharf, natural variability will mean that sometimes galaxies will be settled, but often not — solving Fermi’s quandary.

• But the fact that no interstellar visitors are here now does not mean they do not exist, the study’s authors say. Civilizations do not last forever. Not every star is a destination, and not every planet is habitable. There’s also what Frank calls “the Aurora effect,” in which settlers arrive at a habitable planet on which they nonetheless cannot survive. When Carroll-Nellenback and his coauthors included these impediments in their model and ran simulations with different star densities, seed civilizations, spacecraft velocities and other variations, they found a vast middle ground between a silent, empty galaxy and one teeming with life. It’s possible that the Milky Way is partially settled, or intermittently so.

• Frank and Wright say that now we need to look for alien signals, which will be possible as more sophisticated telescopes open their eyes to the panoply of exoplanets and begin glimpsing their atmospheres. “We are entering an era when we are going to have actual data relevant to life on other planets,” Frank said. “This couldn’t be more relevant than in the moment we live.”

[Editor’s Note]   The wrangling over Fermi’s Paradox continues among mainstream scientists who are groping for an answer to a flawed premise. When you take the premise that no interstellar beings have ever visited the Earth as “Fact A”, there’s nowhere to go. It becomes a perpetual debate on why there are no beings here besides us. But this is a falsehood from the start. Of course there are extraterrestrial beings all around us. We have real evidence that they have been here for thousands of years, and anecdotal evidence that they have been here for hundreds of millions or even a couple of billion years. This galaxy and the universe are teeming with intelligent life. All of the 52 star systems in our local star cluster have human-like civilizations very similar to our own. We are apparently the last to join this community. It is our time. The problem is that the powers that be, which control the Deep State government and the mainstream science community, have made it a priority to keep Earth humans completely ignorant and unaware of our true reality, often through silly “scientific studies” such as this one.

 

As far as anyone knows, we have always been alone. It’s just us on this pale blue dot, “home to everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of,” as Carl Sagan so memorably put it. No one has called or dropped by. And yet the universe is filled with stars, nearly all those stars have planets, and some of those planets are surely livable. So where is everybody?

The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi was purportedly the first to pose this question, in 1950, and scientists have offered a bounty of solutions for his eponymous paradox since. One of the most famous came from Sagan himself, with William Newman, who postulated in a 1981 paperthat we just need patience. Nobody has visited because they’re all too far away; it takes time to evolve a species intelligent enough to invent interstellar travel, and time for that species to spread across so many worlds. Nobody is here yet.

Other researchers have argued that extraterrestrial life might rarely become space-faring (just as only one species on Earth ever has). Some argue that tech-savvy species, when they arise, quickly self-destruct. Still others suggest aliens may have visited in the past, or that they’re avoiding us on purpose, having grown intelligent enough to be suspicious of everyone else. Perhaps the most pessimistic answer is a foundational paper from 1975, in which the astrophysicist Michael Hart declared that the only plausible reason nobody has visited is that there really is nobody out there.

Now comes a paper that rebuts Sagan and Newman, as well as Hart, and offers a new solution to the Fermi paradox that avoids speculation about alien psychology or anthropology.

The research, which is under review by The Astrophysical Journal, suggests it wouldn’t take as long as Sagan and Newman thought for a space-faring civilization to planet-hop across the galaxy, because the movements of stars can help distribute life. “The sun has been around the center of the Milky Way 50 times,” said Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, an astronomer at the University of Rochester, who led the study. “Stellar motions alone would get you the spread of life on time scales much shorter than the age of the galaxy.” Still, although galaxies can become fully settled fairly quickly, the fact of our loneliness is not necessarily paradoxical: According to simulations by Carroll-Nellenback and his colleagues, natural variability will mean that sometimes galaxies will be settled, but often not — solving Fermi’s quandary.

The question of how easy it would be to settle the galaxy has played a central role in attempts to resolve the Fermi paradox. Hart and others calculated that a single space-faring species could populate the galaxy within a few million years, and maybe even as quickly as 650,000 years. Their absence, given the relative ease with which they should spread, means they must not exist, according to Hart.

Sagan and Newman argued it would take longer, in part because long-lived civilizations are likelier to grow more slowly. Faster-growing, rapacious societies might peter out before they could touch all the stars. So maybe there have been a lot of short-lived, fast-growing societies that wink out, or a few long-lived, slowly expanding societies that just haven’t arrived yet, as Jason Wright of Pennsylvania State University, a coauthor of the new study, summarized Sagan and Newman’s argument. But Wright doesn’t agree with either solution.

“That conflates the expansion of the species as a whole with the sustainability of individual settlements,” he said. “Even if it is true for one species, it is not going to be this iron-clad law of xenosociology where if they are expanding, they are necessarily short-lived.” After all, he noted, life on Earth is robust, “and it expands really fast.”

In their new paper, Carroll-Nellenback, Wright and their collaborators Adam Frank of Rochester and Caleb Scharf of Columbia University sought to examine the paradox without making untestable assumptions. They modeled the spread of a “settlement front” across the galaxy, and found that its speed would be strongly affected by the motions of stars, which previous work — including Sagan and Newman’s — treated as static objects. The settlement front could cross the entire galaxy based just on the motions of stars, regardless of the power of propulsion systems. “There is lots of time for exponential growth basically leading to every system being settled,” Carroll-Nellenback said.

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FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

Alien Lifeforms Will Be Discovered Within 20 Years, British Scientist Predicts

by Jasper Hamill                         November 19, 2018                         (metro.co.uk)

• Dr. David L Clements, a top astrophysicist at Imperial University (Imperial College London) as recently published a paper claiming that alien life will be discovered within 20 years. “…[N]ew observational insights and other developments mean that signs of life elsewhere might realistically be uncovered in the next decade or two,” says Clements.

• In his study, Dr. Clements discussed the Fermi Paradox, saying that an alien space-faring civilization, “…should thus already be here, and yet they are not.” “This can be used as an argument against the existence of intelligent extraterrestrials, but our own existence is proof that intelligent life can and does arise in the Galaxy. This is the central puzzle of the Fermi Paradox.”

• Dr. Clements’ paper goes on to suggest that life is likely to be found in oceans locked beneath the frozen surface of moons or planets. In our own solar system, one of the most likely homes for alien life is Europa, a moon of Jupiter which is believed to be hiding a gigantic body of water beneath its icy crust. “We are left with the rather chilling prospect that the galaxy may be filled with life, but that any intelligence within it is locked away beneath impenetrable ice barriers, unable to communicate with, or even comprehend the existence of, the universe outside,” says Dr. Clements.

[Editor’s Note]  Perhaps the true error is in the assumption that alien beings should already be here, “yet they are not”. Oh, they’re here alright, and in a variety and numbers that will astound the intentionally uninformed citizens of planet Earth. They will reveal themselves when it serves their purpose. The question is, is the reason that they are here one that is negative or positive for the human race?

 

In a newly published paper, one of the nation’s top astrophysicists has claimed we will discover traces of alien life within 20 years. Dr David L Clements of Imperial University said that ‘detecting signs of life elsewhere has been so technically challenging as to seem almost impossible’ until very recently. ‘However, new observational insights and other developments mean that signs of life elsewhere might realistically be uncovered in the next decade or two,’ he continued.

    Dr. David L Clements

In his study, Dr Clements discussed the Fermi Paradox, which is the contradiction between the high probability of life existing in the universe and the fact we haven’t managed to detect it. Theoretically, a ‘space-faring civilisation’ should be able to visit every single star in the galaxy in a timescale of between 50 and 100 million years – even if they travelled at velocities which were slower than the speed of light. ‘Aliens should thus already be here, and yet they are not,’ Dr Clements added. ‘This can be used as an argument against the existence of intelligent extraterrestrials, but our own existence is proof that intelligent life can and does arise in the Galaxy. ‘This is the central puzzle of the Fermi Paradox.’

His paper goes on to suggest that life is likely to be found in oceans locked beneath the frozen surface of moons or planets – which could have big implications for the development of a civilisation. In our own solar system, one of the most likely homes for alien life is Europa, a moon of Jupiter which is believed to be hiding a gigantic body of water beneath its icy crust. ‘We are left with the rather chilling prospect that the galaxy may be filled with life, but that any intelligence within it is locked away beneath impenetrable ice barriers, unable to communicate with, or even comprehend the existence of, the universe outside,’ the paper continued. ‘We know that species that live in water can evolve to a high level of intelligence – dolphins and octopuses are good examples. ‘However, A liquid environment may be a limiting factor in the development of technology.’

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