NASA Expects To Find Alien Life Forms In Just A Few Years

by Vadim Ioan Caraiman                     February 13, 2019                    (greatlakesledger.com)

• NASA expects to find alien life forms in just a few years by changing the current approach in its search for extraterrestrials with a more aggressive method based on looking for biosignatures. While finding “habitable” exoplanets in recent years, they weren’t finding any evidence of alien existence.

• A new report from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, called Biosignature False Positives, highlights NASA’s optimism in finding extraterrestrials. “Within the next several decades… it may be possible to observe indirect evidence for… life using the so-called biosignatures,” the report reads.

• According to the report, we need to look for “biosignatures” in the atmospheres of the exoplanets. On Earth these biosignatures are fossils, empty candy wrappers, and oxygen, among others, as the report reads. “Each of these observations provides indirect evidence, of varying strength, for the presence of extant, or extinct [alien life forms].” “In our search for [alien life] we must infer the presence of life from its impact on the local or global environment.”

 

Since the dawns of civilizations, humans have been looking up to the skies thinking that someone or somewhat is out there, in the Universe. Could be gods could be extraterrestrials or could be both, who knows?! However, discovering aliens would be the most significant scientific discovery. And now, NASA expects to find alien life forms in just a few years.

Surprisingly, NASA gave up its old approach regarding its programs that search for extraterrestrials, and the US space agency is now planning to adopt a more aggressive attitude in this regard to speed up the search for aliens. So far, even though the scientists found several habitable exoplanets, at least livable in theory, they couldn’t find evidence of alien existence. A new report from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, called Biosignature False Positives, highlights NASA’s optimism in finding extraterrestrials.

“When trying to detect life on planets orbiting other stars, the direct observation of life (e.g., focusing on a single tree in an alien forest, or seeing an alien, or having the alien shake our hand) is incredibly unlikely. They might not even have hands to shake, which would make it impossible, in fact. Within the next several decades, however, it may be possible to observe indirect evidence for that life using the so-called biosignatures,” the report reads.

As the before-mentioned report outlines, we need to look for “biosignatures” in the atmospheres of the exoplanets. For Earth, for instance, these biosignatures are fossils, empty candy wrappers, and oxygen, among others, as the report reads. “Each of these observations provides indirect evidence, of varying strength, for the presence of extant, or extinct [alien life forms],” Biosignature False Positives states.

READ ENTIRE ARTICLE

 

FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

Why Saturn’s Moon Iapetus Could Have Been Artificially Made By Extraterrestrials

by Arjun Walia                   February 7, 2019                    (collective-evolution.com)

Iapetus – Iapetus is a moon of Saturn that was discovered by Italian astronomer Giovaccini Domenico Cassini in 1671. What is so interesting about Iapetus is that there is a mountain-like ridge running around the moon’s equator that measures up to 20 kilometres tall, twice the size of Mt Everest, and approximately 200 kilometres thick. (Iapetus is pictured above)  It is actually the tallest mountain range in our entire Solar System. But the rest of the moon is flat. This would indicate that it is artificially constructed. A lot of prominent researchers and scientists say that the Earth’s Moon is also artificially constructed. Of course, they’re generally ignored by the mainstream. But most interesting is the fact that both our Moon and Iapetus’ moon are in a near perfect circular orbit, and one side always faces its planetary host, locked into position.

The Moon – On more than one occasion, researchers have found strange and large artificial structures on the back side of the Moon. We have witness testimony from credible sources including high ranking intelligence and military people who have revealed structures on the Moon. Carl Sagan once pointed out that artifacts found on the Moon or other orbiting objects in the solar system might be stored there by previous [extraterrestrial] expeditions for use in successive visits to our star system, avoiding detection by Earthbound humans. The Deputy Manager for the 1995 Clementine Mission to the Moon said it was really a reconnaissance mission to check out the bases on the back side of the Moon. In 1962, NASA scientist Gordon MacDonald published a paper stating it’s more likely that the Moon is hollow than not. MIT’s Sean C. Solomon furthered this statement citing knowledge of the Moon’s gravitation field as evidence for the assertion. Multiple governments, including Russia, have been calling for an international investigation as to where much of NASA’s photographs, footage and even Moon rocks have disappeared.

Mars – There is no doubt that life once flourished on Mars, with vast oceans, mountain ranges and greenery. There may have been a very intelligent civilization on Mars, and still might be within it. A recent paper in the Journal Scientific Exploration “hinted strongly at artificial surface interventions” in the Cydonia region on Mars where there are pyramids and ‘The Face on Mars’. NASA astronaut Dr. Brian O’Leary even accused Carl Sagan of covering up the fact that NASA knew the Face on Mars was artificial. Buzz Aldrin spoke about a monolith on a moon of Mars.

Saturn – The pictures NASA got back from the Voyager mission to Saturn in 1980 were apparently so mind-altering that they locked them up, according to retired U.S. Army Command Sergeant Major Bob Dean. In his book “The Ringmakers of Saturn”, Norman Bergrun revealed a NASA secret that large spacecraft were “proliferating” around Saturn’s rings and moons, and that these extraterrestrial ‘vehicles’ were responsible for making artificial rings around Saturn. Photographs of Saturn show something luminous near the gas giant planet’s surface. Bergrun had to leave the country in order to publish the book, and today a copy of the book is so rare that it is worth thousands of dollars.

 

Our solar system is fascinating, to say the least, and there is still so much we don’t know about it. What makes one even more curious is knowing the organizations and people who operate at the highest levels of ‘security clearances’ probably know a whole lot more. That being said, if you’re independently curious, there are more than enough resources available to satisfy your curiosity, you will find a way to investigate. At the very least you could get access to the best telescope you have and stare at the other planets, our Moon, and the Moons of other planets.

Perhaps the best thing to do is simply sift through the literature and you will find no shortage of strange anomalies that have been discovered in space -there’s truly no shortage. It’s also likely you will come across the tremendous amounts of controversy that come with these discoveries as well. Strange findings have been subject to ridicule within the mainstream, but that hasn’t stopped hundreds, if not thousands, of researchers and insiders from all backgrounds from continuing their study and education.

The Face On Mars Example

The Face on Mars is a good example of anomalies and ridicule. It has been the subject of several published papers that clearly show a high chance of artificial construction. Carl Sagan was even accused by his colleague, physicist and NASA astronaut Dr. Brian O’Leary for covering up the fact that ‘they’ knew the Face on Mars was artificial.

Today, it’s a much different story, and it appears that there is no doubt that life once flourished on Mars prior to the massive climate shift which occurred there that made it what it is today. Not many people know that Mars was once very Earth-like, with vast oceans, mountain ranges and greenery. Little did we know that there may have been a very intelligent civilization there, and still might be, perhaps within in.

A paper published in the Jornal Scientific Exploration was one of the latest to examine the Cydonia region on Mars. As the authors point out, “it validates the earlier measurements obtained using the lower resolution NASA Viking images, which hinted strongly at artificial surface interventions.” The key word there is artificial surface interventions. There are pyramids and faces on Mars, similar and in some cases, larger than those found here on planet Earth.

Our Own Moon

Then we have the Moon, which has also been the subject of recent peer-reviewed research. On more than one occasion, researchers have found what appears to be strange, and large, artificial structures on the back side of the Moon, the side we can never see unless we send probes and astronauts around it. To compliment all of the information regarding the Moon, we have statements from a number of credible sources in the form of witness testimony, from high ranking intelligence and military people etc. It’s safe to say that something strange is happening on the Moon. I do believe we went there, but I also believe what we were shown and told was heavily sanitized. Let’s not forget about Buzz Aldrin being so outspoken about a “Monolyth on the (one of the) moon of Mars.”

Iapetus, Perhaps The Most Puzzling

Which brings me to the topic of this article, Iapetus, one of Saturn’s moons. What’s unique about it is the fact that it has what appears to be a huge mountainous ridge that measures up to 20 kilometres tall, twice the size of Everest, and approximately 200 kilometres thick. It can be seen running exactly along the equator for well over three-quarters of the moon’s entire circumference, but it’s safe to assume around the entire planet. It was discovered in 2004, early in the Cassini mission.

First, let me set the stage. Iapetus is bizarre in a lot of ways. It has a yin-yang surface of dark and bright material. It is unexpectedly flat pole-to-pole. It seems to have an excessive number of large impact basins. And it has a mountainous ridge, up to 20 kilometres tall, running exactly along its equator for well over three-quarters of its entire circumference. The existence of this ridge was revealed very early in the Cassini mission, in an encounter at the end of 2004. – Jim Mars, Our Occulted History

A number of prominent researchers and scientists have hypothesized that our own Moon is artificial in nature, as so they have done with other Moons, like Iapetus. That being said, we don’t hear much about these theories & the credibility of the people behind them. They’re completely ignored by the mainstream simply because they don’t fit within the mainstream narrative which is nothing more than a theory in itself.

READ ENTIRE ARTICLE

 

FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

The Exoplanet Next Door

by John Wenz                    (astronomy.com)

• Since first detecting a weak signal from our Sun’s closest neighbor, Proxima Centauri (only 4.24 light-years away) in 2013, a group of astronomers from Germany, France and Chile who call themselves the “Pale Red Dot Team’ have been looking for – and have found – an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of that star. Proxima was monitored closely for subtle variations on the European Southern Observatory’s HARPS instrument over a series of nights from January 19 to March 31, 2016. By a process called radial velocity that looks for Doppler shifts in a star’s light due to the tug of a planet, the researchers could estimate the mass and orbital frequency to zero in on a planet, which they named Proxima Centauri b (PCb). Their findings were published in the science journal Nature last summer.

• Turns out that PCb is quite Earth-like. It slightly bigger and is roughly the mass of our planet and is located in just the right “Goldilocks zone” in relation to its star where, if it has an atmosphere, liquid water could exist on the surface. The exoplanet’s distance from its star is only one-fifth the distance from Mercury to the Sun. But Proxima Centauri is only a little larger than Jupiter, considered the runt of the litter in the Alpha Centauri system.

• The reason that the five billion year-old PCb planet revolves so quickly around its star is because it is tidally locked to it. The same side of the planet faces Proxima Centauri at all times, much like the same side of the Moon faces Earth at all times. But if PCb still has an atmosphere, it could reach temperatures up to 86° F (30° C) on its sunlit side, and -22° F (-30° C) on its darker side, bringing it into quite Earth-like temperature ranges. But if, for some reason, PCb has lost its atmosphere, the lack of atmosphere could have evaporated any water on the planet long ago, leaving a cold, barren planet of -40° F (-40° C).

• The key to preserving an atmosphere would be the existence of a magnetic field. Researchers have gone back and forth whether a tidally locked planet could have a core that stirs with its rotation, thus generating a magnetic field. The magnetic field shields the planet from the worst excesses of its star, which then settles into a state of relative dormancy. The Pale Red Dot astronomers believe that as a planet migrates closer to its sun while creating a magnetic field, this magnetic field could remain active even after a planet gets so close to become tidally locked to its sun.

• Astronomers need to observe the planet in greater detail in order to further characterize it. Planets are so small, the signals are so weak, it almost needs its own dedicated telescope. Currently, no instrument in space or on the ground is sensitive enough to pick up reflected light from older and smaller planets. But the James Webb Space Telescope currently under construction might be a mega-telescope that can actually detect biosignatures, or even molecules, in the atmospheres of other planets. Other proposed methods of getting deeper into a planet’s biosignature include ‘stellar suppression’ which blocks the surrounding light of the star, and infrared.

• “To find (a habitable planet) around the nearest, best-studied star … maybe we’re just really lucky, or maybe there really are just billions of M-dwarf planets out there waiting for us to find them,” says Elisabeth Newton, a Kavli post-doctoral fellow at MIT who studies red dwarf, or M-dwarf, systems. Nearly every star is suspected to have a planet. Some of those could be habitable. If it ends up that PCb is barren, then perhaps we’ll have better luck looking at the next star over, Barnard’s Star.

 

The hunt for exoplanets has, in some ways, been about the hunt for an Earth-like planet – something warm where water could exist. Headlines tout each discovery as “the most Earth-like planet yet.” Many of those planets are far away.

But a new discovery published August 24 in Nature hits closer to home, with an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of its star. What’s more, that star is Proxima Centauri, only 4.24 light-years away. That means that there is no solar system that will be closer to Earth in our lifetimes.

And so far, the exoplanet, named Proxima Centauri b, is shaping up to be quite Earth-like, roughly the mass of our planet and in just the right place where, if it has an atmosphere, liquid water could exist on the surface.
This is as in our backyard as it gets.

“I think it actually marks a transition,” Jeffrey Coughlin, a SETI Institute scientist not involved in the study who assembles the Kepler catalog, says. “Twenty years ago, we were finding the first exoplanets and it was totally exciting,” he says. Then there was the Kepler telescope, which found thousands of planets, including some in the habitable zone, and some within a few dozen light-years of us.

And now there’s a planet of 1.3 Earth masses right next door, zipping around its star in 11.2 days. Its distance of 4,349,598 miles (7 million kilometers) from its star may seem tiny, at just one-fifth the distance between Mercury and the Sun, but Proxima Centauri is the runt of the litter in the Alpha Centauri system. At a diameter of 124,274 miles (200,000km), it’s only 1.43 times the diameter of Jupiter.

So how was there a planet hiding around the closest star to us, just waiting to be discovered? The simple answer: Finding a planet is really hard. Kepler found thousands of planets by staring at 145,000 stars in a minute region of the sky at the tail end of Cygnus, waiting for the 1 percent chance a planet would directly pass in front of a star and cause a dip in its light, in a method known as transiting.

But the problem with the Proxima Centauri planet is that it doesn’t transit — at least not from our vantage point. In order to witness a transit, the orbital plane of the planets must be at or near our line of vision, but not all solar systems have the same orientation. A star might have all of its planets aligned at a 90-degree angle from us, with the planets orbiting in such a way that they never pass in front of their star for our telescopes to see. While some planets have been found by direct imaging (that is, appearing in a photo along with its star) it’s not possible of yet with Proxima, a 5 billion year old planet. Unless the planets are very young and very large, no instruments are currently capable of directly imaging these planets.

How to find a planet (that doesn’t want to be found)

That’s why the Pale Red Dot project, tasked with finding a planet around our nearest neighbor, had to turn to indirect — but reliable — methods of detection. The researchers chose radial velocity, a process that looks for shifts in a star’s light due to the tug of a planet, sometimes called the Doppler shift method. Subtle movements of gravity cause the light of a star to move toward the blue end of the light spectrum, which means it’s moving toward us, or the red end of the spectrum, which means it’s moving away. Based on those changes, researchers can give a mass estimate, and the frequency gives an idea of the orbit.

The planet itself was found over a series of nights from January 19 to March 31, 2016, during which Proxima was monitored closely for subtle variations on the European Southern Observatory’s HARPS instrument.

READ ENTIRE ARTICLE

 

FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. ExoNews.org distributes this material for the purpose of news reporting, educational research, comment and criticism, constituting Fair Use under 17 U.S.C § 107. Please contact the Editor at ExoNews with any copyright issue.

Copyright © 2018 Exopolitics Institute News Service. All Rights Reserved.