‘Racing Certainty’ There’s Life on Europa and Mars, Leading UK Space Scientist Says

 

Article from Liverpool Hope University                   February 6, 2020                     (phys.org)

• Recently installed Chancellor at Liverpool Hope University and Professor of Planetary and Space Science, Monica Grady told a university audience recently that the notion of undiscovered life in our galaxy isn’t nearly as far-fetched as we might expect. It’s ‘almost a racing certainty’, says Grady.

• “[I]f there’s going to be life on Mars, ‘it’s likely to be very small bacteria’ and it’s going to be under the surface of the planet,” said Grady. Under the surface of Mars “you’re protected from solar radiation. And that means there’s the possibility of ice remaining in the pores of the rocks, which could act as a source of water.”

• “I think we’ve got a better chance of having slightly higher forms of life on Europa, perhaps similar to the intelligence of an octopus.” Jupiter’s moon Europa is covered by a layer of ice up to 15 miles deep, and there’s likely liquid water beneath where life could dwell. The ice acts as a protective barrier against both solar radiation and asteroid impact. The prospect of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor – as well sodium chloride in Europa’s salty water – also boost the prospects of life.

• As for what lies beyond the Milky Way galaxy, Professor Grady says that it is ‘highly likely’ that the environmental conditions that led to life on Earth could be replicated elsewhere. “Our solar system is not a particularly special planetary system, as far as we know, and we still haven’t explored all the stars in the galaxy,” says Grady, who has worked with the European Space Agency. “I think it’s highly likely there will be life elsewhere …made of the same elements.”

• Grady notes that based purely on a statistical argument, dinosaurs killed by an asteroid impact making way for furry mammals from which humans evolved is theoretically possible to replicate in this vast universe. “Whether we will ever be able to contact extraterrestrial life is anyone’s guess, purely because the distances are just too huge.” “As for so-called alien ‘signals’ received from space, there’s been nothing real or credible.”

• At least three separate missions will be launched to Mars this year. The ExoMars 2020 mission, a joint project of the European Space Agency and the Russian space agency, Roscosmos, launches in July and is planned to reach the red planet in February 2021. The space exploration probe, the Hope Mars Mission funded by the United Arab Emirates, is set to launch in the summer.

• Grady has been studying a single grain of rock that was brought back to Earth in 2010 from the asteroid ‘25143 Itokawa’ by the Japanese Hayabusa mission. “When we look at this grain, we can see that most of it is made up of silicates, but it’s also got little patches of carbon in it,” says Grady. “[W]e can see that it’s been hit by other bits of meteorite, asteroid, and interstellar dust. “It’s giving us an idea of how complex the record of extra-terrestrial material really is.”

• In order to avoid contaminating the Earth with a Mars virus, Professor Grady described how a NASA mission will collect soil samples in tubes and leave them on Mars. Then in 2026, an ESA mission will collect those samples and put them in orbit around Mars. Then, a third mission will come and collect that orbiting capsule. Says Grady, “It’s about breaking the chain of contact between Mars and the Earth, just in case we bring back some horrendous new virus.” “[W]e don’t want to contaminate Mars with our own terrestrial bugs.”

• Professor Grady points out that space mission sterilization protocols will also prevent other planets from being contaminated by Earth viruses. Current protocol requires boiling equipment in acid or heating it to high temperatures.”We could be all there is in the galaxy. And if there’s only us, then we have a duty to protect the planet.”

[Editor’s Note]   As usual, the universities dependent on deep state funding intend to maintain the status quo, giving the public the impression that they are open to the possibility of extraterrestrial life in the universe, but limiting it to bacterial life in underground crevasses or primitive sea life hidden underneath miles of ice. They will note that there is no “real or credible” evidence of any other type of extraterrestrial life. University chancellors and professors must remain in denial of the vast amount of evidence of intelligent extraterrestrial life, the presence of ET beings here on Earth, and the existence of several secret space programs in order to keep their well-paid jobs and comfortable life styles.

 

It’s ‘almost a racing certainty’ there’s alien life on Jupiter’s moon Europa—and Mars could be hiding primitive microorganisms, too.

That’s the view of leading British space scientist Professor Monica Grady, who says the notion of undiscovered life in our galaxy isn’t nearly as far-fetched as we might expect.

              Professor Monica Grady

Professor Grady, a Professor of Planetary and Space Science, says the frigid seas beneath Europa’s ice sheets could harbor ‘octopus’ like creatures.

Meanwhile the deep caverns and caves found on Mars may also hide subterranean life-forms—as they offer shelter from intense solar radiation while also potentially boasting remnants of ice.

Professor Grady was speaking at Liverpool Hope University, where she’s just been installed as Chancellor, and revealed: “When it comes to the prospects of life beyond Earth, it’s almost a racing certainty that there’s life beneath the ice on Europa.

“Elsewhere, if there’s going to be life on Mars, it’s going to be under the surface of the planet.

“There you’re protected from solar radiation. And that means there’s the possibility of ice remaining in the pores of the rocks, which could act as a source of water.

“If there is something on Mars, it’s likely to be very small—bacteria.

“But I think we’ve got a better chance of having slightly higher forms of life on Europa, perhaps similar to the intelligence of an octopus.”

Professor Grady isn’t the first to pinpoint Europa as a potential source of extraterrestrial life.

And the moon—located more than 390 million miles from Earth—has long been the subject of science fiction, too.

Europa, one of Jupiter’s 79 known moons, is covered by a layer of ice up to 15 miles deep—and there’s likely liquid water beneath where life could dwell.

The ice acts as a protective barrier against both solar radiation and asteroid impact.

Meanwhile, the prospect of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor—as well sodium chloride in Europa’s salty water—also boost the prospects of life.

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Global Superpowers Teaming Up To Build Bases On The Moon

 

Article by Zero Hedge                         February 6, 2020                            (safehaven.com)

• One year ago, China’s Chang’e 4 probe and the Yutu-2 rover it carried onboard have been busy photographing and scanning minerals, growing yeast, hatching fruit-fly eggs, and cultivating cotton, potato, and rapeseeds on the dark side of the moon. Last summer, NBC News reported that the Yutu-2 rover had come across a strange “gel-like” substance which the Chinese began to study. (see article here)

• China’s National Space Administration has continued to work on its Tiangong 3 space station and is planning on testing a new manned spacecraft for deep-space missions. That permanent station will reach orbit aboard China’s new Long March 5B rocket in the first half of 2020. The Chinese space agency plans to launch the Chang’e 5 probe into space as early as this year. Wu Yanhua, deputy chief commander of China’s Lunar Exploration Program said, “China, the United States, Russia and Europe are all discussing whether to build a research base or a research station on the moon”.

• But not so fast. Back in 2017, China and Europe made plans to build a moon base together in a move of “international collaboration”. Now, Europe and Russia plan to send a probe to the dark side of the moon and are ‘eyeing’ plans to build a joint moon base on the far side of the lunar surface. Even NASA and Russia’s Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities announced plans in 2017 for a joint moon base as part of NASA’s “deep-space gateway” concept . In 2019, it was leaked that NASA had plans of its own to develop the “Artemis” lunar surface base, which is now being threatened by a U.S. House panel. (see article here)

• These types of discussions have been going on since the 1950’s with a US government project called ‘Horizon’ which sought to establish a moon base by 1966. The idea never materialized. In 1963 at the height of the Cold War, the US and Soviet Union formed a joint project to study and develop a ‘Manned Orbiting Laboratory’. More of a US spy mission than a scientific one, the ‘MOL’ project was canceled in 1969. But now Russia and the US may revive that plan with a base that will orbit the moon similar to how the International Space Station orbits the Earth.

• The status of any plans between Russia, the U.S., China and Europe could be suddenly canceled for political reasons or something else before they ever see the light of day. But it is all good so long as it is done in the spirit of joint exploration, and not weaponization. The last thing we need is another resource-draining arms race in space or a space war.

[Editor’s Note]  How long will this charade go on? All of this is nothing more than a stall – a song and dance played out by puppet space agencies to continue the cover up of scores if not hundreds of bases throughout our solar system, mostly on Mars and the ‘dark side’ of the moon, built and occupied by a variety of secret space programs. Except these bases generally are not “surface bases” but elaborate underground facilities. In fact, the moon itself is a carved out super-base brought here by a race of refugees from the planet Maldek at the time of its explosion (now known as the asteroid belt). These space agencies must know all of this and are now positioning themselves for the inevitable disclosure of the true extent of the vast secret space programs that have been constructed since World War II, and the dawn of a new Era of Space.

 

One year ago in January, a Chinese robot landed on the dark side of the moon. Since then, the Chang’e 4 probe and the Yutu-2 rover it carried onboard have been busy photographing and scanning minerals, growing yeast, hatching fruit-fly eggs, and cultivating cotton, potato, and rapeseeds in the moon’s low gravity, according to the Daily Beast.

Now, China’s National Space Administration is quietly planning to launch yet another probe into space. Chang’e 5 could blast off as early as this year.

Last year, TMU reported that the Yutu-2 rover came across a strange “gel-like” substance which the Chinese began to study extensively.

The Chinese space agency has continued to work on its Tiangong 3 space station and is planning on testing a new manned spacecraft for deep-space missions. That permanent station will reach orbit aboard the country’s new Long March 5B rocket in the first half of 2020, AFP reported. The mission will not be associated with the International Space Station.

It is worth noting that China and Europe both planned on building a moon base together in a move of “international collaboration” back in 2017. Europe and Russia are also eyeing plans to send a probe to the dark side of the moon to determine if they should build a moon base on the far side of the lunar surface.

And the U.S. hasn’t been quiet when it comes to the space race either with the introduction of Space Force and plans of its own for a joint base with Russia.

For the U.S., this space race to build a moon base is nothing new. A project known as Horizon was supposedly a plan drawn up in the 1950s that seemingly depicts the blueprints for a base on the moon. Project Horizon sought to establish a stationary Army control base on the moon by 1966 but the operation was allegedly shut down and canceled and the idea never materialized further.

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Breathing New Life Into Colonizing the Moon? ESA to Produce Oxygen From Lunar Dust

 

January 20, 2020                       (rt.com)

• NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are working together towards “a sustained human presence on the Moon and maybe one day Mars.” Toward that end, the ESA has built a prototype oxygen plant in Noordwijk, Netherlands that extracts breathable oxygen from moon rocks, or “lunar regolith”. The space agency’s goal is to create a functional, portable version of the system, ready for testing by the mid-2020s, that could one day be flown to the Moon .

• “Being able to acquire oxygen from resources found on the Moon would obviously be hugely useful for future lunar settlers, both for breathing and in the local production of rocket fuel,” says Beth Lomax of the University of Glasgow, a researcher working on the prototype at the European Space Research and Technology Centre.

• It turns out that lunar regolith (moon rock) is made up of 40 to 45 percent oxygen by weight, making it the Moon’s single most abundant element. Lunar rocks are placed in a metal basket with calcium chloride salt and then heated to 950 degrees Celsius (or 1742 degrees Fahrenheit). Then, by passing an electric current through the heated rock it releases the oxygen contained within.

• With this process, the regolith becomes a usable metal alloy which may also have uses beneficial to a future colony on the Moon, such as raw material for lunar-based 3D printers to construct parts for lunar bases or even spacecraft.

 

        Beth Lomax

The European Space Agency (ESA) has fired up its prototype oxygen plant to begin producing the element out of

                a moon rock

simulated moondust, with a view to creating a sustainable breathable air production facility on the Moon.

“Being able to acquire oxygen from resources found on the Moon would obviously be hugely useful for future lunar settlers, both for breathing and in the local production of rocket fuel,” says Beth Lomax of the University of Glasgow, a researcher working on the prototype at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC).

The current prototype is set up in a lab in Noordwijk in the Netherlands, but the next step is to begin fine-tuning, reducing the operating temperature and streamlining the design to create a portable version of the system that could one day be flown to the Moon.

Based on samples brought back from the Moon over the years, it turns out that lunar regolith (moon rock) is made up of 40 to 45 percent oxygen by weight, making it the satellite’s single most abundant element, which is incredibly fortunate for future human colonization plans.

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