Month: April 2018

The Challenges of an Alien Spaceflight Program: Escaping Super Earths and Red Dwarf Stars

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by Matt Williams            April 20, 2018             (universetoday.com)

• In two recent research papers, Harvard Professor Abraham Loeb and Sonneberg Observatory researcher Michael Hippke looked at the challenges that extra-terrestrials would face launching chemical rockets from large planets and also planets in a close orbit to its central sun. Both situations create a gravity well that would require an escape velocity impossible for chemical rocket propulsion.

• Our G-type Earth is unique in that it is relatively small and at such a distance from its yellow dwarf star that it will allow a rocket to escape from the Earth’s gravity well. Says Loeb, “By a fortunate coincidence, the escape speed from the orbit of the Earth around the Sun is at the limit of attainable speed by chemical rockets… But the habitable zone around fainter stars is closer in, making it much more challenging for chemical rockets to escape from the deeper gravitational pit there.”

• The most common star in the galaxy is the M-type red dwarf star, accounting for 75% of the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The red dwarfs are also the most likely stars to have rocky planets. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is such an M-type star. It has an Earth-sized planet, Proxima b, with a ‘habitable zone’ for possible life that is much closer to its’ fainter star than is the Earth to the Sun. “A civilization on Proxima b will find it difficult to escape from their location to interstellar space with chemical rockets,” says Loeb.

• Hippke suggests that planets that have more mass than the Earth, and therefore a higher surface gravity, along with flatter topography, shallow oceans, and a thicker atmosphere, may be ideal for biological life. But the higher surface gravity means that it will also have a higher escape velocity. The amount of propellant needed lift a rocket out of the planet’s gravity would make this method of propulsion impractical. This could have a serious effect on an alien civilization’s space travel. Explains Hippke, “On more massive planets, space flight would be exponentially more expensive. Such civilizations would not have satellite TV, a moon mission, or a Hubble Space Telescope. This should alter their way of development in certain ways we can now analyze in more detail.”

• Both Loeb and Hippke also noted that extra-terrestrial civilizations could address these challenges by adopting other methods of propulsion. Chemical propulsion may be something that few technologically-advanced species would adopt because it is simply not practical. Therefore, it would make sense to search for extraterrestrial signals associated with lightsails or nuclear engines near dwarf stars.

• “Civilizations from Super-Earths are much less likely to explore the stars,” reasons Hippke. “They would be (to some extent) “arrested” on their home planet, and make more use of lasers or radio telescopes for interstellar communication instead of sending probes or spaceships.”

[Editor’s Note] On the other hand, advanced civilizations who have mastered anti-gravity propulsion, space-time wormholes, and space-time bubbles would consider chemical-fueled or even nuclear-fueled rockets to be primitive technology. The UFO’s we see darting all around the sky certainly aren’t rockets.

 

Since the beginning of the Space Age, humans have relied on chemical rockets to get into space. While this method is certainly effective, it is also very expensive and requires a considerable amount of resources. As we look to more efficient means of getting out into space, one has to wonder if similarly-advanced species on other planets (where conditions would be different) would rely on similar methods.

Harvard Professor Abraham Loeb and Michael Hippke, an independent researcher affiliated with the Sonneberg Observatory, both addressed this question in two recently–released papers. Whereas Prof. Loeb looks at the challenges extra-terrestrials would face launching rockets from Proxima b, Hippke considers whether aliens living on a Super-Earth would be able to get into space.

    Professor Abraham Loeb

The papers, tiled “Interstellar Escape from Proxima b is Barely Possible with Chemical Rockets” and “Spaceflight from Super-Earths is difficult” recently appeared online, and were authored by Prof. Loeb and Hippke, respectively. Whereas Loeb addresses the challenges of chemical rockets escaping Proxima b, Hippke considers whether or not the same rockets would able to achieve escape velocity at all.
For the sake of his study, Loeb considered how we humans are fortunate enough to live on a planet that is well-suited for space launches. Essentially, if a rocket is to escape from the Earth’s surface and reach space, it needs to achieve an escape velocity of 11.186 km/s (40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph). Similarly, the escape velocity needed to get away from the location of the Earth around the Sun is about 42 km/s (151,200 km/h; 93,951 mph).

As Prof. Loeb told Universe Today via email: “Chemical propulsion requires a fuel mass that grows exponentially with terminal speed. By a fortunate coincidence the escape speed from the orbit of the Earth around the Sun is at the limit of attainable speed by chemical rockets. But the habitable zone around fainter stars is closer in, making it much more challenging for chemical rockets to escape from the deeper gravitational pit there.”

As Loeb indicates in his essay, the escape speed scales as the square root of the stellar mass over the distance from the star, which implies that the escape speed from the habitable zone scales inversely with stellar mass to the power of one quarter. For planets like Earth, orbiting within the habitable zone of a G-type (yellow dwarf) star like our Sun, this works out quite well.

Unfortunately, this does not work well for terrestrial planets that orbit lower-mass M-type (red dwarf) stars. These stars are the most common type in the Universe, accounting for 75% of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy alone. In addition, recent exoplanet surveys have discovered a plethora of rocky planets orbiting red dwarf stars systems, with some scientists venturing that they are the most likely place to find potentially-habitable rocky planets.

Using the nearest star to our own as an example (Proxima Centauri), Loeb explains how a rocket using chemical propellant would have a much harder time achieving escape velocity from a planet located within its habitable zone.

“The nearest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, is an example for a faint star with only 12% of the mass of the Sun,” he said. “A couple of years ago, it was discovered that this star has an Earth-size planet, Proxima b, in its habitable zone, which is 20 times closer than the separation of the Earth from the Sun. At that location, the escape speed is 50% larger than from the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. A civilization on Proxima b will find it difficult to escape from their location to interstellar space with chemical rockets.”

      Michael Hippke

Hippke’s paper, on the other hand, begins by considering that Earth may in fact not be the most habitable type of planet in our Universe. For instance, planets that are more massive than Earth would have higher surface gravity, which means they would be able to hold onto a thicker atmosphere, which would provide greater shielding against harmful cosmic rays and solar radiation.

In addition, a planet with higher gravity would have a flatter topography, resulting in archipelagos instead of continents and shallower oceans – an ideal situation where biodiversity is concerned. However, when it comes to rocket launches, increased surface gravity would also mean a higher escape velocity. As Hippke indicated in his study: “Rockets suffer from the Tsiolkovsky (1903) equation : if a rocket carries its own fuel, the ratio of total rocket mass versus final velocity is an exponential function, making high speeds (or heavy payloads) increasingly expensive.”

For comparison, Hippke uses Kepler-20 b, a Super-Earth located 950 light years away that is 1.6 times Earth’s radius and 9.7 times it mass. Whereas escape velocity from Earth is roughly 11 km/s, a rocket attempting to leave a Super-Earth similar to Kepler-20 b would need to achieve an escape velocity of ~27.1 km/s. As a result, a single-stage rocket on Kepler-20 b would have to burn 104 times as much fuel as a rocket on Earth to get into orbit.

To put it into perspective, Hippke considers specific payloads being launched from Earth. “To lift a more useful payload of 6.2 t as required for the James Webb Space Telescope on Kepler-20 b, the fuel mass would increase to 55,000 t, about the mass of the largest ocean battleships,” he writes. “For a classical Apollo moon mission (45 t), the rocket would need to be considerably larger, ~400,000 t.”

While Hippke’s analysis concludes that chemical rockets would still allow for escape velocities on Super-Earths up to 10 Earth masses, the amount of propellant needed makes this method impractical. As Hippke pointed out, this could have a serious effect on an alien civilization’s development.

“I am surprised to see how close we as humans are to end up on a planet which is still reasonably lightweight to conduct space flight,” he said. “Other civilizations, if they exist, might not be as lucky. On more massive planets, space flight would be exponentially more expensive. Such civilizations would not have satellite TV, a moon mission, or a Hubble Space Telescope. This should alter their way of development in certain ways we can now analyze in more detail.”

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Wilileaks Document Suggest That Wernher Von Braun Tried to Warn Us About a Fake Alien Invasion

by Arjun Walia               April 6, 2018                 (collective-evolution.com)

• Dr Wernher Von Braun (pictured above) was a Nazi rocket scientist in the secret spacecraft development plant at Peenemünde during World War II , then through Operation Paperclip recruited as a high-level NASA aeronautical engineer during the 1960’s and early 70’s. One of Von Braun’s mentors, a founding father of rocketry and astronautics, Herman Oberth said, “It is my thesis that flying saucers are real and that they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our Earth for centuries.”

• Below is an excerpt from a video interview of Carol Rosin speaking about her mentor, Dr Wernher Von Braun. (See the full 33:53 minute video from the Sirius Disclosure YouTube channel below.)
          o “I met the late Dr Wernher Von Braun in early ’74, at that time Von Braun was dying of cancer, but he assured me that he would live a few more years in order to tell me about the game that was being played, that game being the effort to weaponize space, to control Earth from space and space itself.”
          o “What was most interesting to me was a repetitive sentence that he said to me over and over again… that was, the strategy that was being used to educate the public and decision makers, and the scare tactics, the spin that was being put on (as justification for our advanced) weapons system… (was based upon) …how we identify an enemy.”
          o “The enemy at first, (Von Braun) said, (to justify our) …space based weapons system… first the Russians are going to be considered the enemy… then terrorists would be identified… then we were going to identify third world crazies… The next enemy was asteroids… [and] against asteroids we’re going to build space based weapons.”
          o “And the funniest one of all was against what he called aliens, extraterrestrials. That would be the final card. And over, and over, and over during the four years that I knew him and was giving his speeches for him, he would bring up that last card. ‘And remember Carol, the last card is the alien card. We’re going to have to build space based weapons against aliens.’ And all of it, he said, is a lie.”

• Is there a possibility that powerful groups that control governments will use the extraterrestrial phenomenon to deceive the masses? Given everything we’ve seen with false flag terrorism so far, it certainly seems plausible.

[Editor’s Note] The article’s writer then asks “Why do we always wait until the government or the media verifies something in order to believe it’s true? Why do we assume that anyone without these official credentials is lying, or crazy, or both? If we simply did our own research, we could come to our own conclusions and we wouldn’t be so easily fooled when these official sources lie to us. There is so much information out there and so much evidence to support not only the existence of UFOs but of extraterrestrials as well. We don’t need the government to tell us what is already apparent. We just need to do independent research and think for ourselves.” Why? It is becoming apparent that the negative extraterrestrials that have been manipulating humanity on Earth (ie” Anunnaki, Draco Reptilians, negative Nordics, and their small Greys), have subjected the planet to mass mind controlled agenda, inducing our top leaders to do their bidding and instilling an apathy and cognitive dissonance in the collective minds of the populace.

As you’ve probably already heard, a while ago Wikileaks released the Podesta emails . As with previous leaks, they expose massive amounts of corruption within the U.S. political system.
Some of the Podesta leaks include information about UFOs and extraterrestrials in the form of private emails.

One in particular was from Apollo 14 astronaut Dr. Edgar Mitchell, and it reads as follows:

Dear John,
Because the War in Space race is heating up, I felt you should be aware of several factors as you and I schedule our Skype talk. Remember, our nonviolent ETI from the contiguous universe are helping us bring zero point energy to Earth. They will not tolerate any forms of military violence on Earth or in space.

The following information in italics was shared with me by my colleague Carol Rosin, who worked closely for several years with Wernher von Braun before his death.

Carol and I have worked on the Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, attached for your convenience.

In the email, he mentions Carol Rosin, who was the first female corporate manager of Fairchild Industries. A space and missile defence consultant who has worked with various corporations, government departments, and intelligence communities, she worked closely with Wernher Von Braun shortly before his death, specifically on the subject of space-based weapons. She also founded the Institute for Security Cooperation in Outer Space.

Below is a very telling interview with Carol that was conducted by Dr. Steven Greer, founder of The Disclosure Project. Greer accompanied Dr. Edgar Mitchell in all his communications and meetings with the Pentagon and has been instrumental in bringing forth hundreds of military whistleblowers of all ranks, with verified credentials and backgrounds, to share what they’ve learned about this phenomenon through their work.

In the interview, she brings up the idea of a false flag alien threat. The term ‘false flag’ describes covert operations that are designed to be misleading, to make it appear as though events are being carried out by entities, groups, or nations other than those who actually planned and executed them.

“I met the late Dr Wernher Von Braun in early 74, at that time Von Braun was dying of cancer, but he assured me that he would live a few more years in order to tell me about the game that was being played, that game being the effort to weaponize space, to control Earth from space and space itself.”
“He asked me to be his spokesperson, to appear on occasions when he was too ill to speak, and I did. And what he asked me to do was to educate decision makers and the public about why we shouldn’t be putting weapons into space . . . and what the alternatives are, how we could be building a cooperative space system.”

“What was most interesting to me, was a repetitive sentence that he said to me over and over again. . . . And that was the strategy that was being used to educate the public and decision makers, and the scare tactics, the spin that was being put on the weapons system. And that was how we identify an enemy.”

“The enemy at first he said, the enemy against whom we’re going to build a space based weapons system . . . First the Russians are going to be considered the enemy . . . then terrorists would be identified and that was soon to follow . . . then we were going to identify third world crazies, we now call them nations of concern. . . . The next enemy was asteroids . . . [and] against asteroids we’re going to build space based weapons.”

“And the funniest one of all, was against what he called aliens, extraterrestrials, that would be the final card. And over, and over, and over during the four years that I knew him and was giving his speeches for him, he would bring up that last card.

‘And remember Carol, the last card is the alien card. We’re going to have to build space based weapons against aliens,’ and all of it, he said, is a lie.”

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NASA’s TESS Satellite Launches to Seek Out New Alien Worlds

by Mike Wall        April 18, 2018          (space.com)

• On April 18th, NASA launched the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, or “TESS” from Cape Canaveral, Florida. (It was delayed two days to tweak the Falcon 9’s rocket’s guidance, navigation and control systems.) TESS’ two-year, $200M mission is to hunt for alien worlds in our local star system. The satellite will focus on the nearest and brightest stars, using its four cameras to look for worlds that may be close enough to be studied in depth by other instruments.

• TESS principal investigator George Ricker says, “TESS is going to dramatically increase the number of planets that we have to study… “It’s going to more than double the number that have been seen and detected by Kepler.” (The Kepler satellite previously mapped 2,650 nearby Exoplanets.) These satellites locate Exoplanets using the “transit method,” by noting tiny brightness dips these worlds cause when they cross their host star.

• TESS will zoom around our planet, on a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit that no spacecraft has ever occupied before. This orbit will take TESS as close to Earth as 67,000 miles and as far away as 232,000 miles. TESS will arrive in its final orbit in mid-June, if all goes according to plan. The science campaign will start shortly thereafter.

The agency’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) launched today (April 18) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, rising off the pad atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at 6:51 p.m. EDT (2251 GMT) and deploying into Earth orbit 49 minutes later.

TESS will hunt for alien worlds around stars in the sun’s neighborhood — planets that other missions can then study in detail. And the spacecraft will be incredibly prolific, if all goes according to plan.

“TESS is going to dramatically increase the number of planets that we have to study,” TESS principal investigator George Ricker, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said during a pre-launch briefing Sunday (April 15).

“It’s going to more than double the number that have been seen and detected by Kepler,” Ricker added, referring to NASA’s Kepler space telescope, which has spotted 2,650 confirmed exoplanets to date —about 70 percent of all the worlds known beyond our solar system.

And the Falcon 9’s first stage came back to Earth less than 9 minutes after liftoff today, touching down softly on a robotic SpaceX “drone ship” stationed in the Atlantic Ocean. SpaceX has now pulled off two dozen such landings during Falcon 9 launches — part of the company’s push to develop fully and rapidly reusable rockets and spacecraft, a breakthrough that SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk has said will revolutionize spaceflight.

SpaceX has re-flown 11 of these first stages to date, but the tally didn’t increase today: This Falcon 9 was brand-new.

Today’s launch was originally scheduled for Monday evening (April 16), but it was delayed by two days to give SpaceX time to investigate a potential issue with the rocket’s guidance, navigation and control systems.

Looking for nearby worlds

Like Kepler, TESS will find alien planets using the “transit method,” noting the tiny brightness dips these worlds cause when they cross their host stars’ faces. But there are some big differences between the missions.

During its prime mission from 2009 through 2013, Kepler stared continuously at a single patch of sky, monitoring about 150,000 stars simultaneously. (Kepler is now embarked on a different mission, called K2, during which it studies a variety of cosmic objects and phenomena, exoplanets among them. But the iconic telescope’s days are numbered; it’s almost out of fuel.) Most of these stars are far from the sun — from several hundred light-years to 1,000 light-years or more.

But TESS will conduct a broad sky survey during its two-year prime mission, covering about 85 percent of the sky. The satellite will focus on the nearest and brightest stars, using its four cameras to look for worlds that may be close enough to be studied in depth by other instruments.

Watch this 4:10 minute NY Times video on the TESS mission

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