Tag: Panspermia

A research team working with the University of Sheffield claims they may have found extraterrestrial life in the stratosphere at approximate altitudes between 25-27 KM. The results are found in the Journal of Cosmology http://journalofcosmology.com/JOC22/milton_diatom.pdf

Milton Wainwright et al analyzed samples taken over northern England by a stratospheric balloon on July 31, 2013. Their article “Isolation of a Diatom Frustule Fragment from the Lower Stratosphere (22-27Km)-Evidence for a Cosmic Origin” includes photographs of the remains of what may be extraterrestrial microorganisms.  Because Earth-based diatom-size organisms do not survive for a long time at these heights the scientists give as their probable origin a comet.

A “frustule” is the hard shell or cell wall of “diatoms” and they are normally composed of silica. “Diatoms” are unicellular organisms normally representing a form of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are wondering (autotrophic), photosynthesizing micro organisms typically found in the oceans. The balloon had a video camera, an electron microscope and a collecting stub designed to avoid contamination. What would a frustule be doing in the stratosphere at about 25 KM in altitude? The research team used an aseptic electron microscope onboard the balloon and claims that it is the first time an isolated diatom frustule has been obtained from the stratosphere. Moreover, they report that the size and mass of the specimen were especially significant.  The sampling was conducted during the Perseid meteor shower. However, a comet origin is more specifically suggested.

No known Earth-based source at the time of the sampling (as volcanic eruptions may have been) would have sent a diatom to the stratosphere so the possibility of an extraterrestrial origin is given. The team of scientists (also including Christopher E. Rose, Alexander J. Baker, Briston, K.J and N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Leonardo Centre for Tribilogy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK; and Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, University of Buckingham, UK) is trying to determine whether the diatom frustule corresponds to a known earth species but they are quite serious about the possibility of it being of extraterrestrial origin.

Commentary: Even the scientific finding of an extraterrestrial diatom fragment would be a significant step toward the acceptance of extraterrestrial life. This acceptance would contribute to a more open-minded attitude on the current scientific and exopolitical evidence that self-aware, intelligent, extraterrestrial life is already found here among us.




 Scanning Electron Microscope image of a DIATOM FRUSTULE found in the stratosphere


Image of Comet Hale-Bopp taken by Wally Pacholka on April 5, 1997 from the Joshua Tree National Park in California. Credit: NASA
Image of Comet Hale-Bopp taken by Wally Pacholka on April 5, 1997 from the Joshua Tree National Park in California. Credit: NASA

A team of scientists has released a paper in the March edition of the Journal of Cosmology supporting claims from an earlier study, that a meteorite that crashed in Sri Lanka in December 2012 contained extraterrestrial fossils. The initial paper, “Fossil Diatoms in a New Carbonaceous Meteorite,” was published in January 2013 and subjected to criticism that the diatom fossils (a form of algae) found in the meteor had been contaminated by earth water and the fossils were terrestrial in origin. The new study authored by a team of scientists from Cardiff University, University of Buckingham, and University of California San Diego, found that the rock was definitely a meteorite and that the meteor had not been contaminated, and the fossils in it were ancient. The new scientific study gives strong support to Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe’s theory of Panspermia, that ancient microbial life has spread throughout the galaxy by comets.

The new scientific study, “The Polonnaruwa Meteorite: Oxygen Isotope, Crystalline And Biological Composition,” appeared in the March 5 edition of the Journal of Cosmology. It was first reported on March 11 by Sebastian Anthony, in ExtremeTech, who claimed that the new study “is the strongest evidence yet of cometary panspermia.”

The March 5 study directly addressed the main criticism leveled against the January paper that the meteor rock samples were contaminated by Earth water, and that the Diatom fossils were of terrestrial origin. Professor Patrick Kociolek from the University of Colorado wrote a response to Phil Plait from Bad Astronomy that:

… the diversity present in the images represent a wide range of evolutionary history, such that the “source” of the diatoms from outer space, must have gone through the same evolutionary events as here on earth. There are no extinct taxa found, only ones we would find living today…for me it is a clear case of contamination with freshwater.

Plait and other critics used Kociolek’s claim that the meteor sample was contaminated by freshwater. Using a sophisticated testing process, the new study, however, conclusively dismissed the contamination thesis:

The presence of a number of carbonaceous biological structures exhibiting severe nitrogen depletion is highly indicative of ancient fossilised biological remains. Some of these were deeply integrated in the surrounding mineral matrix suggesting they could not have been recent terrestrial contaminants.

The March 5 study also addressed criticism that the Sri Lanka rock samples were not meteorites; it concluded:

We conclude that the oxygen isotope data show P1 59/001-03 and P/159001-04 are unequivocally meteorites, almost certainly fragments originating from the fireball-causing bolide. The most likely origin of this low density meteorite with delicate structures, some highly carbonaceous, is a comet.

This March 5 scientific study helps confirm Wickramasinghe’s theory of Panspermia which the authors themselves point out: “The presence of fossilized biological structures provides compelling evidence in support of the theory of cometary panspermia first proposed over thirty years ago.” The new study is sure to raise more scrutiny of the Sri Lankan meteor sample and the idea that life is quite common throughout the universe, and can be spread by comets.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

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