Image by Mark Rademaker depicting NASA’s IXS Enterprise, a Plausible Double Torus Alcubierre Drive Spaceship
There’s work going on at NASA which might be slowly revealing a shift in mindset from conventional action-reaction, Newtonian science and denial of extraordinary (i.e “non-classic”) events into a more “exotic,” very useful, no-nonsense science perfectly allowed by the known laws of physics. The “Alcubierre Drive” (based on a paper published in 1994 by Miguel Alcubierre) is becoming feasible. CNN gave the news on 06/18/2014 but advances had been in the works at least officially for a few years. The news mentioned travelling “faster than the speed of light” which is not quite accurate but, nonetheless, the possibility of developing technology to reach distant locations like Alpha Centauri within months or even two weeks made the news a bit of a pro (ET presence) disclosure, an eye-opener.
The chief scientist working on such important interstellar matters for NASA is Engineer Harold “Sonny” White.
In http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/team/harold-white/ we read “Dr. White holds a Ph.D. in Physics from Rice University, a Master’s of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Wichita State University, and a Bachelors of Science in Mechanical Engineering from University of South Alabama. Dr. White has accumulated over 15 years of experience working in the aerospace industry with Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and NASA.” “Wormholes” and “Warp Drives” come to mind to practically travel great distances in space as allowed by Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. Both involve manipulating the “fabric” of spacetime and both would require an exotic form of energy known as “negative energy” and-or “negative vacuum energy” which – as of today – is conventionally difficult to obtain.
“Warp Drives” refer to encapsulating spaceships inside a distorted spacetime “bubble” (warped or distorted in relation to an exterior spacetime reference frame). They’re about expanding spacetime behind the spaceship and contracting it at its front in the direction they want to travel. The vehicle thus encapsulated inside this “bubble” would “surf” or “slide” towards a destiny focused ahead of the contracting front and, since there’s is no limit in principle to the amount of space contraction and dilation, it would be able to “surf” at relative speeds many times that of light. More specifically, in relation to the quantum vacuum (which can have different energy densities), two distinct spacetime energy densities derived from that vacuum can move faster than “C” in relation to each other.
Original single torus capacitor “ring” design warping spacetime with traveling compartment inside
While inside the altered spacetime “bubble,” the spaceship itself never travels beyond “C” (the speed of light limit in the vacuum), but that spacetime “bubble” in relation to the spacetime frame outside of it can indeed “move” faster than “C” carrying along the vehicle inside toward an otherwise unbearably distant destination. Impractical differences in the passage of time occurring through Lorentzian effects incurred when accelerating close to the speed of light (but within the same spacetime energy density) would also be overcome. After the warp field/“bubble” within which “surfing astronauts” are traveling is turned off, the time passed within it would correspond to the time passed outside. Passengers would return to their original time frame without having incurred Lorentzian time-dilation effects.
I wonder if the alleged electrogravitational “Biefeld-Brown Effect” is a related way to generate an Alcubierre or Alcubierre-type of propulsion effect. Regarding this effect (thoroughly researched by Thomas Towsend Brown who produced available and also classified patents) it is alleged that – in a disc-shaped, high k (dielectric) capacitor which distributes charges in opposite directions, space-time dips into a “well” on the side of the positive charges as it simultaneously expands as a “hill” on the side of negative charges. Also, allegedly some configurations with high dielectrics, extremely high pulsed voltages and different amperage may result in thrust and movement towards the positive charges even in a hard vacuum, eliminating the possibility that the effect is only due to a coronal discharge interacting with air. Perhaps space-time itself is also distorted by this method which is said to generate a separate, modified space-time “bubble” around a craft, isolating it from inertial effects as it moves in relation to exterior space-time. Does this system also produce negative energy states?
Photo of Thomas Townsend Brown testing one of his many disc-shaped capacitors. The expansion and contraction of gravitational forces would (like in the Alcubierre Drive concept) allow a craft to “surf the cosmos” within its own modified space-time that would (in different degrees) be uncoupled or out of phase with ordinary, exterior space-time. The most efficient shapes, materials, pulsed frequencies, the architecture of multiple smaller capacitors and other details must be classified.
NASA’s Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory (“Eagleworks”) is the lab working (within the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, TX) on this promising development and, thus far, there seems to have been some success in spite of the small amount of funding given for this project (perhaps in the order of 50,000 USD). However, scientists are working in a laboratory that was also used to develop inertial components for the Apollo Missions and which can be isolated from vibrations outside. They also have access to precision instruments because the measurements they are attempting to make (with small warp field-generating prototypes) are very small.
The positive effects apparently obtained as of today are tiny but likely about to be replicated and sufficiently verified as “proof-of-concept,” perhaps thereafter eventually “maturing” into a practical application. Still, much needs to be carefully tested but, apparently, these almost “proof-of-concept” experiments are quite promising. For success in interstellar travel activities, it seems crucial to produce “negative density/negative pressure,” through a charged negative potential “ring” (or torus) perpendicular to the craft. Capacitors are being used with this toroidal topography. Alcubierre originally suggested his drive would be more feasible with “exotic” negative energy. However, Dr. Harold White has shown that the required potential field may be sustained by using toroidal capacitors with positive energy oscillating within. However, I understand that, in order to expand spacetime behind the craft that positive energy oscillating within the toroidal capacitors would still have to produce negative energy states that can be directed.
Good general information can be found in “WARP FIELD MECHANICS 101″ and WARP FIELD MECHANICS 102” by Harold White at: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110015936.pdf and at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20130011213.pdf
A question: May current toroidal “ring” forms perpendicular to the section containing the spaceship crew eventually evolve into whole ellipsoidal forms and/or double discs, thus classic UFO shapes? If we continue to surround the central “cabin” with thick rings or torii it looks like we could form an enclosed ovoid. Another question is whether opening an energy flow from the vacuum (obtaining from the vacuum the energy to oscillate) would potentiate the effect.
Are both disc-shaped and tubular ET craft structured by combining “rings” or torii? Below photograph by Antonio Urzi
The warped bubble of spacetime apparently created inside that negative potential “ring” or torus would be FLAT. Thus the craft inside this “bubble” would experience ZERO acceleration and – within its own frame of reference – it wouldn’t, in fact, go faster than the speed of light.The central region of the bubble (where the warp space spaceship is) would remain within the astronaut’s original spacetime frame and not be affected by relativistic time dilation. But there is no theoretical limit for the speed the spacetime bubble would be able to move with respect to the contextual spacetime in the rest of the universe.
Without feeling/experiencing any acceleration or a challenge to inertia people or objects inside the craft (itself inside the warp or “bubble”) would not crash against the walls. Interestingly Dr. White found (in 2011 and 2012), by making the “ring” (the torus) thicker (like a “lifesaver” candy) the effects are potentiated; while the flatness of space is decreased (would not be a good thing for crew members) the mechanical ‘strain’ required to manipulate spacetime is decreased; meaning that less negative energy would be needed to achieve the Alcubierre Drive effect. Thus the energy density inside the warp or “bubble” would collapse many orders of magnitude. For a 10-meter diameter craft, by thickening the “ring,” “torus” or “donut shape,” the Jupiter-size mass as an energy source once needed can be reduced to, let’s say, the mass the Voyager spacecraft.
Alcubierre’s original work required the use of “negative energy” to expand spacetime behind the spaceship and this poses a technical difficulty. However, in 2017, a small amount of matter behaving in a negative energy state was produced at Washington State University. https://news.wsu.edu/2017/04/10/negative-mass-created-at-wsu/
As shown in the first image perhaps the single torus can be doubled. Different configurations can be experimented upon. In a basic presentation found at a Space Vision’s Student Conference found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKTgNCGhq9Y Dr. White explains that “A series of Barium Titanate ceramic capacitors are charged to very high (DC) voltages to establish a very large potential energy, to establish a blue-shifted frame relative to the lab. The net effect according to the field equations should change the perceived wavelength of that leg of the interferometer for a photon as it moves through that (warped) region.” Moreover, “The interference patterns seem to change as a function of time.”
Experimenters are also trying to find Fourier transform changes. They have detected some interesting but (as per this article) not definitive changes. As of today I’ve found little information about the oscillating charge-discharge frequencies used but suspect that they are a key component also needed to magnify the Alcubierre Drive Effect. Could it be that frequencies that may cancel out and “warp” our 4D regular spacetime (possessing a specific stable energy density framework in the quantum vacuum) would be understood as out of phase multiples of a fundamental spacetime oscillation in which our known universe is located?
With a Helium-Neon laser-based interferometer detecting shifting light interference properties Dr. White and his team are trying to measure a small-scale warp bubble effect to achieve proof-of-concept. The effect to be measured is very tiny (about 1/100 a wavelength of light) so it requires much precision and a seismically isolated room and a computer analysis to overcome the signal-to-noise ratio. Perhaps a larger prototype will show a greater effect. They are also trying to use a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure it. They also used a new interferometer and claim to have measured a small warping effect in 2013. https://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-03/warp-factor?page=0%2C2#page-3
A spaceship sent to Alpha or Beta Centauri would have to start with a small acceleration in order for its spacetime “bubble” to continue to move forward in relation to the outer frame of reference. I don’t know how the direction of movement could be re-directed.
The amount of energy required would be a function of the radius. A much smaller amount of negative energy would still be needed with a thicker toroidal capacitor and an adequately fabricated potential field. Moreover, the possibility of learning to produce some of it became real since in 2017 WashingtonState University physicists published in Physical Review Letters “Negative-Mass Hydrodynamics in a Spin-Orbit-Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate” and University of Rochester physicists published in Nature Physics “Anomalous Dispersion of Microcavity Trion-Polaritons.” In both cases, small amounts of negative energy states were produced and verified. Links: https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.155301 and https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys4303
For space-time to ‘know’ which direction to contract and to expand – if indeed it is “catalytic” – one would need to accelerate first with a conventional propulsion system to establish an initial velocity relative to some ecliptic or solar inertial frame. Then turn the field on.
Then space expands and contracts as a result, but not itself as a catalyst, contracting up front and expanding behind. The spaceship would then be carried within the “bubble” in the direction of the contraction and spacetime as a reference frame can move faster than “C” in relation to the spacetime frame exterior to the bubble. We would have an oscillating potential field given by the relation dϕ/dt. I wonder about adequate frequencies and if a frequency multiple as a rotating or counter-rotating field out of phase with a fundamental 4D spacetime frequency would be useful. For this, we would need to know if there is a basic resonant frequency within the fabric of our spacetime.
Another approach that is being tried at NASA’s Eagleworks Lab: Instead of placing a ring of potential energy around the beam path they tried to put a very high potential region in the middle of the light beam path. So a capacitor was placed in the middle of the beam path and they apparently got even more interesting results.
Calculations explained by Dr. Harold White show that increasing the thickness of the torus-ring and oscillating the bubble field intensity would reduce the amount of energy required for a PRACTICAL Alcubierre “propulsion” implementation. I wonder how much negative energy would it still be necessary and whether a particular configuration of the oscillating potential field is able of producing it.
Another method also explored (the “Q Thrust”) works by pushing off against the quantum vacuum’s virtual particles popping in and out of existence in space. Where fields are stronger there are more virtual particles popping in and out of existence whereby creating such fields would make such a thrust theoretically plausible. I think that creating a warped bubble field would also make the “Q Thrust” more feasible. To me, this indicates that a series of technologies based on similar principles reinforce each other.
Some questions: As of today I’ve found little information about the oscillating charge-discharge frequencies used but suspect that they are a key component needed to magnify the Alcubierre Drive.
Could it be that frequencies that may cancel out and “warp” our 4D regular spacetime (possessing a specific stable energy density framework in the quantum vacuum) would be understood as out of phase resonance-canceling multiples of a fundamental 4D spacetime oscillation? I wonder if switching the toroidal capacitors on and off with and-or generating vortical, circulating field cycles around them with a specific resonant multiple of a basic quantum vacuum spacetime frequency might enhance the effect. I wonder if the appropriate frequency might also relate to a completely out-of-phase resonant multiple of gravity wave frequencies in 4D spacetime? I think that other functions of the torus need to be recognized as a bridge between “dimensions,” branes, realities.
Connections with the Work of Robert L. Schroeder (previously reported in Exonews)? May these recent advances in Alcubierre Warp Drive generation relate to the model (and predictions) being forged by Engineer Robert L. Schroeder?
Schroeder’s model (coming from a particle physics perspective) is connected with RS1 Warped Geometry Theory, a variety of String and Cosmological Brane Theory attempting to explain the weakness of the force of gravity). It explains ET-UFO effects as gravity cancellation effects in relation to Kaluza Klein Gravitons that may exist in a Five-Dimensional “Bulk” and which – in turn – may generate micro black holes capable of canceling normal gravitons in our normal 4D spacetime. If this occurred, the spaceship would also partially move into the 5-dimensional “bulk” (See: http://exonews.org/worthy-attempt-solve-enigma-extraterrestrial-ufo-propulsion/ ).
Intuitively, for me Schroeder’s proposal and Harold White’s are compatible. This should be studied further. Above’s depiction may be that of a complementary method emphasizing particles but also the role of a 5D higher dimensional “bulk” as per Robert L. Schroeder’s approach. For instance, Dr. White found that expanding the Alcubierre metric into a higher spacetime would change the stiffness of spacetime. Apparently, if the “bubble’s” intensity also oscillated, the stiffness of spacetime would be decreased and this would also reduce the energy requirement.
A minimum, non-trivial amount of negative energy would still be needed to reduce the stiffness of spacetime according to the following basic relation: dϕ/dt. However, in relation to a higher spacetime frame (like the 5 D “bulk”), a positive vacuum energy density might induce a negative vacuum energy density and warp field.
In a paper published by Dr. Harold White and by E. W. Davis titled “The Alcubierre Warp Drive in Higher Dimensional Spacetime” (it can be found at http://www.earthtech.org/publications/davis_STAIF_conference_2.pdf ) we read in the conclusion that there is a “remarkable discovery that a spacecraft’s spacetime expansion boost in the Alcubierre warp spacetime actually represents a movement of the spacecraft off our local brane (3 + 1 dimensional spacetime) and into the higher dimensional bulk space. The Alcubierre warp spacetime expansion boost merely acts as a scalar multiplier acting on an initial velocity. The consequence of this is that the equation of state for the energy density and pressure that induces this effect is equivalent to the dark energy equation of state and the equation of state for the vacuum energy in space. This suggests a conceptual laboratory experiment whereby a toroidal positive energy density induces a negative pressure warp field.”
In other words, achieving exotic negative energy effects MIGHT be plausible through positive energy manipulation if we indeed live in a higher dimensional, 5D “bulk.” This may also mean that electromagnetic photons emitted by the spaceship while inside the spacetime warp “bubble” might not be detected in the regular 4D (3 space + 1 time) spacetime frame. The spacecraft would become gradually INVISIBLE as it moves off our normal reference frame (or 4D brane) and into the 5D bulk.
I wonder if using faster-than-light scalar longitudinal EM waves (Dr. Konstantin Meyl shows a method on how to generate them) inside the toroidal ring capacitor (instead of transversal EM waves) would help to induce a negative pressure warp field. And what if these waves were set at specific pulse frequencies or resonant multiples of frequencies that may cancel or enhance gravity waves or resonate with zero-point vacuum energy allowing it to cohere perhaps in conjunction with polaritons and other quasi-particles? https://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-03/warp-factor?page=0%2C2#page-3
In an interview for Popular Science Dr. White basically mentioned that he had signed a non-disclosure agreement that prohibited him from revealing how he might produce the small – but sufficient – amount of negative energy required for the project to work. Moreover, he wasn’t able to mention with what entity he had signed that agreement. What is known is that DARPA is financing NASA’s Eagleworks Lab and that the lab recently moved into a larger facility.
Interestingly, many of the unique (beyond Newtonian) characteristics (also listed by Robert L. Schroeder) observed through the best available evidence of what could reasonably be considered as technologically advanced extraterrestrial vehicles seem to be partially explained not only by Dr. Schroeder’s model but by the model being developed at NASA. While NASA uses the so-called “Chung-Freese Model” and Schroeder uses Randall-Sundrum’s RS1 Model, both consider that our perceived 4D Universe exists within a more encompassing 5D brane called “the bulk.”
I think this two models should be carefully compared, especially if both allow for similar non-classical practical space travel behavior. Interestingly, besides, an annulment of inertial effects, and a way to reach otherwise exceedingly distant locations in 4D spacetime, we may speak of a way to become translucent and even to achieve invisibility. As White and Davis suggest in the aforementioned paper: “As the Alcubierre LIF (ALIF) warps as suggested by equation (7), the photons emitted from it will not be able to intersect the coordinate observer (lab)frame because the photons were emitted off-brane from the ALIF. This is the reverse scenario we discussed earlier where photons on the brane were not able to interact with an electron off of the brane. Unless something acts on the off-brane photons to reduce their boost, they will not be detected by the on-brane coordinate observer. Hence, an Earthbound coordinate observer will most likely see a dimming effect when viewing the ALIF as its spacetime expansion boost increases. Similarly, the ALIF will see his/her surrounding universe grow dimmer and dimmer as photons emitted on-brane cannot reach the now off-brane ALIF.”
In other words, the translucent and invisibility-achieving aspects of UFOs would also be part of the effects predicted by this technology developed at NASA. Moreover, as “proof-of-concept” is finally reached to reasonable satisfaction, overly skeptical scientists (excessively attached to accepting “reality” only in classical terms and unable to conceive that other intelligences may be able to reach Earth from remote locations) will also have to contend with the theoretically canonical and experimentally established idea that some interstellar civilizations may have had enough time and opportunities to develop a form of practical Alcubierre Warp Drive. This and further amounts of high-quality ET-UFO evidence and more scientific advancements will make blatant, closed-minded,witness-testimonies-annulling criticisms and “anti-research” extremely untenable.
While empirical data forces us to modify our explanations, worldviews, or theories there’s also a tendency among social structure supporters to ridicule and combat data in which our preferred theories don’t fit…but in the end, a plain common sense understanding about the evidence prevails and there’s an inevitable shift. Would fusing multiple torii or “rings” turn Mark Rademaker’s depiction of NASA’s IXS Enterprise into a “cigar-shaped UFO” or tubular space-warping gravity control vehicle? See video of an alleged cylindrical-shaped UFO over Korosten, Ukraine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XG76xkW5adI
The “Alcubierre Drive” (by which a spacecraft would, in fact, “surf” a locally warped segment of space-time), Robert L. Schroeder’s engineerable micro black holes hypothesis in combination with T.Towsend Brown’s “electrogravitics” (which in some cases may function in a hard vacuum), Konstantin Meyl’s superluminal scalar-longitudinal waves and Roger Shawyer’s “EM Drive” (now also being enhanced and perfected in China along with a – related – “Cannae Drive” elsewhere) indicate that it is possible to modify and/or circumvent classic spacetime limits and for older, technologically profficient cosmic civilizations to have become (at the very least) interstellar, if not (more powerfully) “transdimensional” (or capable of using a non-physical domain – beyond the zero point energy – underlying all physical manifestations) long before us.
I may be way off the mark but suspect that all of these “drives” work not only because they generate an interaction with virtual particles but also because they harness negative energy states and that these states (and the whole process) relate to a physics of interactions with a deeper superluminal, information-connected layer of reality, including local closed time-like loops with retrocausal quantum mechanical components between real particles and real pilot waves, perhaps in part related to the Post-Quantum Theory expounded by Dr. Jack Sarfatti. https://www.academia.edu/27132022/Bohm_Pilot_Wave_Post-Quantum_Theory
Besides NASA’s Eagleworks Lab, perhaps elements of the Government handling medium-level UFO secrecy (and even a well-developed Secret Space Program) are allowing To the Stars Academy of Sciences to act as a venue to begin introducing technologies already capable to warp spacetime to some degree. This might depend on public trust and support. Be as it may, taken together, these and timidly emerging technologies in the “white, unclassified world” (like the EM and Cannae drives) provide an array of possibilities for humankind. Thus, eventually, the officially allowed opening of traversable wormholes, connection of 4D space-time vehicles with a higher 5D framework and the modification of spacetime to “surf into the cosmos” in order to join with the cosmic community as active participants will take place.
Who should decide who may use these technologies responsibly? Are civilians operating under the current political structures to be trusted? Moreover, besides the ethics and exopolitical decisions required to deal with these technologies, the role of consciousness coupled with these and other more advanced technologies also has to be sorted out.